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U.S. Department of State

Background Notes: Comoros, April 1997

Released by the Bureau of African Affairs.

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Official Name: Federal Islamic Republic of Comoros

PROFILE

Geography

Area: 2,171 sq. km. (838 sq. mi.); slightly less than half the size of Delaware. Major islands: Grande Comore (1,025 sq. km.), Anjouan (424 sq. km.), Mayotte (374 sq. km.), and Moheli (211 sq. km.).
Cities: Capital--Moroni (pop. 30,000). Mutsamudu (pop. 20,000).
Terrain: Rugged.
Climate: Tropical marine.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Comorian(s).
Population (1995 est.): 550,000. Mayotte (1990 est.)--70,000.
Annual growth rate (1995 est.): 3.56%.
Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava.
Religions: Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%.
Languages: Shikomoro (a Swahili-Arab), Malagasy, French.
Education: Attendance-62% primary, 32% secondary. Literacy--48%.
Health: Life expectancy--58 yrs. Infant mortality rate--77/1,000.
Work force (1994): 200,000. Agriculture--80%. Government--3%.

Government

Type: Republic.
Independence: July 6, 1975 (Mayotte remains under French administration).
Constitution: Adopted by referendum in 1978 and since amended.
Branches: Executive--president. Legislative--National Assembly. Judicial--traditional Muslim and codified law from French sources.
Political parties: 17 political parties.
Suffrage: universal adult.

Economy (1994)

GDP (purchasing power parity): $370 million.
Annual growth rate: 2.5% between 1980 and 1993; 0.9% in 1994.
Per capita income: $770.
Agriculture (40% of GDP): Products--perfume essences, copra, coconuts, cloves, vanilla, cinnamon, yams, bananas.
Services (25% of GDP): commerce, tourism.
Industry (6% of GDP): Types--perfume distillation.
Trade: Exports (1993 est.)--$13.7 million: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra. Major markets--United States 44%, France 40%, Germany 6%, Africa 5%. Imports (1993 est.)--$40.9 million: rice, petroleum, meat, wheat flour, cotton textiles, cement. Major suppliers--France 34%, South Africa 14%, Kenya 8%, Japan 4%.
US Economic Aid: FY96 assistance totaled $120,000: $20,000 in self-help, $25,000 in democracy/human rights funds and $75,000 in international military education and training (IMET). The Peace Corps ended its programs in Comoros in 1995.
Exchange rate (1996): 428 Comorian franc = U.S. $1.

PEOPLE

The Comorians inhabiting Grande Comore, Anjouan, and Moheli (86% of the population) share African-Arab origins. Islam is the dominant religion, and Koranic schools for children reinforce its influence. Although Arab culture is firmly established throughout the archipelago, a substantial minority of the citizens of Mayotte (the Mahorais) are Catholic and have been strongly influenced by French culture.

The most common language is Shikomoro, a Swahili dialect. French and Malagasy are also spoken. About 48% of the population is literate.

HISTORY

Over the centuries, the islands were invaded by a succession of diverse groups from the coast of Africa, the Persian Gulf, Indonesia, and Madagascar. Portuguese explorers visited the archipelago in 1505. "Shirazi" Arab migrants introduced Islam at about the same time. Between 1841 and 1912, France established colonial rule over Grande Comore, Anjouan, Mayotte, and Moheli and placed the islands under the administration of the governor general of Madagascar. Later, French settlers, French-owned companies, and wealthy Arab merchants established a plantation-based economy that now uses about one-third of the land for export crops. After World War II, the islands became a French overseas territory and were represented in France's National Assembly. Internal political autonomy was granted in 1961. Agreement was reached with France in 1973 for Comoros to become independent in 1978. On July 6, 1975, however, the Comorian parliament passed a resolution declaring unilateral independence. The deputies of Mayotte abstained. As a result, the Comorian Government has effective control over only Grande Comore, Anjouan, and Moheli. Mayotte remains under French administration.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

The present government of President Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim was elected in March 1996 in internationally monitored elections that observers generally considered free and fair. Taki's election followed a short-lived coup by foreign mercenaries in October 1995 that ousted then-President Said Mohamed Djohar. French troops intervened, arresting the coup leaders and placing Djohar under virtual house arrest in the neighboring French territory of Reunion. An interim government ruled for five months prior to the March elections. The Taki government has taken several steps, including banning the sale of alcohol to Comorian residents, designed to appeal to the country's Islamic majority. The government has also indicated its desire to strengthen relations with the United States and France.

President Taki won an overwhelming majority in the March elections. He promptly replaced many ranking civil servants associated with the Djohar regime and believed to have been extremely corrupt. Their replacements have yet to establish a track record, but many observers believe widespread corruption continues. There were no reports of civil strife in the first nine months following the French intervention that ended the October 1995 coup; the March 1996 elections were conducted peacefully with no reports of violence. Civil unrest broke out in early 1997 as civil servants demanded payment of salary arrears. At President Taki's request, France agreed to maintain a small troop presence in Comoros. While Taki appears to be more popular and able than his predecessor, democratic institutions in Comoros are weak and political life will remain unstable until they are strengthened and the economy improves.

National Security

The military resources of the Comoros consist of a small standing army and a 500-member police force, as well as a 500-member defense force. A defense treaty with France provides naval resources for protection of territorial waters, training of Comorian military personnel, and air surveillance. France maintains a small troop presence in Comoros at government request. France maintains a small maritime base and a foreign legion contingent on Mayotte.

Principal Government Officials

President--Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Said Omar Said Ahmed
Ambassador to the United States and the United Nations--vacant

Comoros maintains a mission to the United States at 336 E. 45th St., 2d floor, New York, NY 10017 (tel. 212-972-8010).

ECONOMY

Comoros, with an estimated gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income of about $700, is among the world's poorest and least developed nations. Although the quality of the land differs from island to island, most of the widespread lava-encrusted soil formations are unsuited to agriculture. As a result, most of the inhabitants make their living from subsistence agriculture and fishing.

Agriculture, involving more than 80% of the population and 40% of the gross domestic product, provides virtually all foreign exchange earnings. Services including tourism, construction, and commercial activities constitute the remainder of the GDP. Plantations engage a large proportion of the population in producing the islands' major cash crops for export: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, and copra. Comoros is the world's leading producer of essence of ylang-ylang, used in manufacturing perfume. It also is the world's second largest producer of vanilla. Principal food crops are coconuts, bananas, and cassava. Foodstuffs constitute 34% of total imports.

The country lacks the infrastructure necessary for development. Some villages are not linked to the main road system or at best are connected by tracks usable only by four-wheel-drive vehicles. The islands' ports are rudimentary, although a deep-water facility was recently completed on Anjouan. Only small vessels can approach the existing quays in Moroni on Grande Comore, despite recent improvements. Long-distance, ocean-going ships must lie offshore and be unloaded by smaller boats; during the cyclone season, this procedure is dangerous, and ships are reluctant to call at the island. Most freight is sent first to Mombasa or Reunion and transshipped from there.

France, Comoros' major trading partner, also provides direct budgetary support essential to the government's daily operations. The United States receives a growing percentage of Comoros' exports but supplies only a negligible fraction of its imports (less than 1%).

Comoros has an international airport at Hahaya on Grande Comore. It is a member of the franc zone (Communaute Financiere Africaine--CFA), with an exchange rate of 428 CFA francs = U.S. $1 (1991).

FOREIGN RELATIONS

In November 1975, Comoros became the 143d member of the United Nations. The new nation was defined as consisting of the entire archipelago, despite the fact that France maintains control over Mayotte.

Comoros also is a member of the Organization of African Unity, the European Development Fund, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Indian Ocean Commission, and the African Development Bank.

U.S.-COMORIAN RELATIONS

The United States recognized the Comorian Government in 1977. The two countries enjoy friendly relations. The United States closed its embassy in Moroni in 1993 and is now represented by a non-resident ambassador in neighboring Mauritius.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Ambassador--Harold W. Geisel (resident in Port Louis, Mauritius)
Administrative/Consular Officer--vacant

The address of the United States embassy in Mauritius is Rogers House, John F. Kennedy Street, Port Louis. (tel: 230-208-2347; fax: 230-208-9534). The mailing address for the embassy is Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520.

TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATION

The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program provides Travel Warnings and Consular Information Sheets. Travel Warnings are issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel to a certain country. Consular Information Sheets exist for all countries and include information on immigration practices, currency regulations, health conditions, areas of instability, crime and security, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. posts in the country. Public Announcements are issued as a means to disseminate information quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively short-term conditions overseas which pose significant risks to the security of American travelers. Free copies of this information are available by calling the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202-647-5225 or via the fax-on-demand system: 202-647-3000. Travel Warnings and Consular Information Sheets also are available on the Consular Affairs Internet home page: http://travel.state.gov and the Consular Affairs Bulletin Board (CABB). To access CABB, dial the modem number: (301-946-4400 (it will accommodate up to 33,600 bps), set terminal communications program to N-8-1 (no parity, 8 bits, 1 stop bit); and terminal emulation to VT100. The login is travel and the password is info (Note: Lower case is required). The CABB also carries international security information from the Overseas Security Advisory Council and Department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Consular Affairs Trips for Travelers publication series, which contain information on obtaining passports and planning a safe trip abroad, can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954; telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250.

Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-5225. For after-hours emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-4000.

Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-hour, 7-day a week automated system ($.35 per minute) or live operators 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday ($1.05 per minute). The number is 1-900-225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778). Major credit card users (for a flat rate of $4.95) may call 1-888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648)

Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at (404) 332-4559 gives the most recent health advisories, immunization recommendations or requirements, and advice on food and drinking water safety for regions and countries. A booklet entitled Health Information for International Travel (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280) is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.

Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a country's embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see "Principal Government Officials" listing in this publication).

U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous areas, are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country (see "Principal U.S. Embassy Officials" listing in this publication). This may help family members contact you in case of an emergency.

Further Electronic Information:

Department of State Foreign Affairs Network. Available on the Internet, DOSFAN provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign policy information. Updated daily, DOSFAN includes Background Notes; Dispatch, the official magazine of U.S. foreign policy; daily press briefings; directories of key officers of foreign service posts; etc. DOSFAN's World Wide Web site is at U.S. State Department Home Page; this site has a link to the DOSFAN Gopher Research Collection, which also is accessible at gopher://gopher.state.gov.

U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published on a semi-annual basis by the U.S. Department of State, USFAC archives information on the Department of State Foreign Affairs Network, and includes an array of official foreign policy information from 1990 to the present. Contact the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. To order, call (202) 512-1800 or fax (202) 512-2250.

National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related information, including Country Commercial Guides. It is available on the Internet (www.stat-usa.gov) and on CD-ROM. Call the NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-1986 for more information.

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