The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature on
September 24, 1996. President Clinton was the first to sign the Treaty.
As of November 10, 2000, 160 nations have signed, including all five nuclear-weapon
states, and 67, including France and the United Kingdom, have deposited
their instruments of ratification. The Treaty names 44 states that must
deposit their instruments of ratification for it to enter into force.
Of these, 30 have now ratified.
The CTBT was negotiated over a period of two-and-a-half years
in the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva. However, the CD was not
able to reach a consensus decision to forward the text to the United Nations.
On August 22, 1996, Australia requested the Secretary General of the United
Nations to reconvene the 50th United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) for
the purpose of receiving and acting on the Treaty. On September 10, 1996,
the UNGA adopted the CTBT by a vote of 158 to 3, with 5 abstentions.
On November 19, 1996, the signatories adopted a resolution establishing
the Preparatory Commission (Prepcom) for the CTBT Organization (CTBTO).
The CTBTO Prepcom consists of all signatory states, and meets in Vienna.
It has established two working groups, on verification and administration,
and a Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS). Under Prepcom direction
the PTS is working to establish the verification regime required by the
Treaty. This includes the International Monitoring System, with global
monitoring capabilities in four technologies -- seismic, hydroacoustic,
radionuclide, and infrasound; the International Data Center, for receiving
and processing data from the monitoring stations; and capabilities for
carrying out on-site inspections, once the Treaty enters into force.
The President transmitted the CTBT to the Senate in September
1997 for its advice and consent to ratification. In his January 19 State
of the Union address, President Clinton called on the Senate to approve
the Treaty this year, asking the Senate to "take this vital step, approve
the Treaty now to make it harder for other nations to develop nuclear arms,
and to make sure we can end nuclear testing forever."
Bold: One of 44 countries whose ratification is required
[end of document]
|Antigua and Barbuda||4/16/97|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina ||9/24/96|
|Congo, Republic of (Brazzaville)||10/4/96|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of (Kinshasa)||10/4/96|
|Equatorial Guinea ||10/9/96|
|Guatemala ||9/20/99 |
|Holy See ||9/24/96|
|Iran (Islamic Rep. of)||9/24/96|
|Kiribati ||9/7/00 ||9/7/00|
|Lao People's Democratic Republic||7/30/97||10/5/00|
|Micronesia (Federated States of)||9/24/96||7/25/97|
|Papua New Guinea||9/25/96|
|Republic of Korea||9/24/96||9/24/99|
|Saint Lucia ||10/4/96|
|Sao Tome and Principe ||9/26/96|
|The Former |
|United Arab Emirates||9/25/96||9/18/00|
|TOTAL: 160 Signed; 67 Ratified|
|Changes from previous Fact Sheet in italics|
Bureau of Arms Control |
Department of State