Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, February 26, 1999.
Sweden is a constitutional monarchy
and a multiparty parliamentary democracy. The King is Chief of
State. The Cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister, exercises executive
authority. The judiciary is independent of the Government.
The Government effectively controls
the police, all security organizations, and the armed forces.
Sweden has an advanced industrial economy, mainly
market-based, and a high standard
of living, with extensive social welfare services. More than
90 percent of businesses are privately owned.
The Government generally respects
human rights and the law and judiciary provide effective means
of dealing with individual instances of abuse. The Parliament,
police, or an ombudsman investigate thoroughly all allegations
of human rights violations, including the occasional allegation
of police misconduct. Ombudsmen, who are appointed by the Parliament
but with full autonomy, have the power to investigate any private
complaints of alleged abuses by authorities and to prescribe corrective
action if required. The country has one of the world's most equal
distributions of income, but wage levels for women still lag behind
those for men. The Government has longstanding programs to deal
with violence against women and abuse of children. There
are occasional incidents of violence against minorities. The
Government, political parties, and youth organizations have active
programs to promote tolerance and combat racism.
RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
Section 1 Respect for the Integrity
of the Person, Including Freedom From:
a. Political and Other Extrajudicial
There were no reports of political
or other extrajudicial killings.
During the year, accusations were
made that a man who died in police custody in 1995 may have been
a victim of excessive use of force by the police. Five autopsies
have been performed and the matter remains under investigation.
New action in the case of assassinated Prime Minister Olof Palme,
anticipated in 1997, did not take place. In the opinion of the
Supreme Court, the case remains closed.
There were no reports of politically
c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman,
or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
The law prohibits these abuses, and
the authorities respect such prohibitions. There are occasional
reports of the use of excessive force by police in arrests, but
thorough investigations have not produced evidence of a systemic
problem. Typically, police officers found guilty of abuse have
been suspended or otherwise disciplined. Between January 1997
and June 1998, there were 12 cases of disciplinary or criminal
sanctions against police charged with excessive use of force.
Prison conditions meet minimum international
standards, and the Government permits visits by human rights monitors.
d. Arbitrary Arrest, Detention,
Arrests are public and by warrant.
The police must lodge charges within 6 hours against persons
detained for disturbing the public order or considered dangerous,
and within 12 hours against those detained on other grounds.
The law requires arraignment within 48 hours. The time between
arrest and the first court hearing may be extended to 96 hours
for detainees considered dangerous, likely to destroy evidence,
or likely to flee. In cases involving more than one individual
and in the case of foreigners, courts can and do order continued
detention for 2 weeks at a time while police are investigating.
Such detentions can be protracted, particularly in drug cases.
Other than such dangerous suspects, detainees are routinely released
pending trial. Bail as such does not exist. If a person files
for bankruptcy and refuses to cooperate with the official investigation,
a court may order detention for up to 3 months, with judicial
review every 2 weeks.
The Government does not impose exile.
Convicted foreign criminals who are
not permanent residents often are deported at the conclusion of
their prison terms, unless they risk execution or other severe
punishment in their home country.
e. Denial of Fair Public Trial
The Constitution forbids deprivation
of liberty without a public trial by a court of law, and the Government
respects this provision. The judiciary is free of governmental
interference. The accused have the right to competent counsel,
but the Government provides public defenders to indigents only
in cases where the maximum penalty could be a prison sentence
of 6 months or more. Convicted persons have the right of appeal
in most instances.
There were no reports of political
f. Arbitrary Interference With Privacy,
Family, Home, or Correspondence
The law limits home searches to investigations
of crimes punishable by at least 2 years' imprisonment, such as
murder, possession of narcotics, robbery, rape, arson, sabotage,
counterfeiting, or treason. The authorities respect this provision.
Normally, police must obtain court approval for a search or a
wiretap. However, a senior police official may approve a search
if time is a critical factor or the case involves a threat to
life. A parliamentary committee each year reviews all monitoring
of telephones, facsimile (fax) machines, or computers. In 1997
the Minister of Justice proposed that police be allowed to use
wiretaps when investigating serious crimes. A special Ministry
of Justice working group submitted a report on this proposal in
April. The report is being reviewed by authorities.
Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties,
a. Freedom of Speech and Press
The Constitution provides for freedom
of speech and the press, and the Government respects these provisions
in practice. Most newspapers and periodicals are privately owned.
The Government subsidizes daily newspapers, regardless of political
affiliation. Broadcasters operate under a state concession.
Until a few years ago, the State had a monopoly over ground-based
broadcasting, but a variety of commercial television channels
(one ground-based, and several via satellite or cable) and several
commercial radio stations now exist.
The Government may censor publications
containing national security information. A quasi-governmental
body excises extremely graphic violence from films, television
programs, and videos.
Criticism of child pornography was
widespread, and the debate on the legality of ownership of pornographic
material continued. In May Parliament passed a law to criminalize
possession and all handling of child pornography. The law is
scheduled to go into effect on January 1, 1999. (The law excludes
serious research or journalism from the prohibition). It is already
illegal to publish or distribute such material. The Queen remains
a strong and popular advocate of children's rights and opponent
of child pornography.
Academic freedom is respected.
b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly
The Constitution provides for freedom
of peaceful assembly and association, and the Government respects
these rights in practice. Police require a permit for public
demonstrations. However, the authorities routinely grant such
permits, with rare exceptions to prevent clashes between antagonistic
c. Freedom of Religion
The Constitution provides for freedom
of religion, and the Government does not hamper the teaching or
practice of any faith.
The country has maintained a state
(Lutheran) church for several hundred years, supported by a general
"Church Tax" (although the Government routinely grants
any request by a taxpayer for exemption from that tax). However,
after decades of discussion in 1995 the Church of Sweden and the
Government agreed to a formal separation. This reform will not
become effective until the year 2000, and the Church will still
receive some state support. As of 1996, citizens were no longer
automatically members of the state church at birth. Sweden is
tolerant of the diverse religions practiced there, including the
Mormon faith and Scientology.
d. Freedom of Movement Within the
Country, Foreign Travel, Emigration, and Repatriation
The law provides for free movement
within, from, and returning to the country, and the Government
respects these rights in practice. Foreigners with suspected
links to terrorist organizations may be required to report regularly
to police authorities, but may travel freely within the country.
Courts must review the reporting requirement for each case at
least once every 3 years.
The Government cooperates with the
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other
humanitarian organizations in assisting refugees. The Government
provides first asylum. In keeping with international agreements,
the Government now reviews applications for asylum more thoroughly
than was the practice previously. The Government has sent some
asylum seekers back to "safe" countries from which they
entered. The number of applications for asylum or residence permits
increased in 1997 to 9,623 (from 5,763 in 1996). In 1995 the
figure was 9,047. Through August 8,159 persons sought asylum,
most of them Kurdish refugees from Iraq and persons from the former
Yugoslavia. The Government approved 8,416 applications in 1997;
6,367 of these were for humanitarian reasons (usually family reunification)
and 733 for individuals requiring protection. Nearly 11 percent
of the country's population is foreign-born.
There is an ongoing debate over the
plight of asylum seekers who have submitted applications that
are considered "manifestly unfounded," those coming
to the country through a "safe third country," and those
whose applications remain under consideration for unduly long
periods of time. Because of the appeals process in the courts,
cases can extend for many years. There also have been complaints
of exceedingly accelerated procedures and inadequate legal safeguards
for some asylum seekers, e.g., asylum seekers who were deported
within 72 hours of arrival and did not receive access to lawyers.
Most of these cases involve persons who have already sought asylum
in Denmark, Norwegians who entered Sweden asking for asylum, or
documented criminals. Some nongovernmental organizations (NGO's)
maintain that Swedish asylum procedures lack rules that would
guide the conduct of authorities to ensure legal protection for
asylum seekers. The procedures accord great discretion to individuals
in decisionmaking positions. According to the NGO's, the decisionmakers
use arbitrary, unspecified, and inconsistent criteria. A
broad interpretation of what constitutes a "safe third
country" permits the return of applicants to a third country.
The Government is reviewing conditions in a number of countries
that were previously considered to be "safe third countries."
During the year the Government decreed that athletes and researchers
who have lived for extended periods in the country can be granted
permanent resident permits. The media gave prominent attention
to an Iraqi doctor who, after having lived in Sweden for many
years, was ordered deported. However, after determining that
he might be subject to torture in Iraq, the decision was reversed.
The Iraqi doctor also fell under the new ruling covering athletes
In 1997 the Government changed its
rules on detention centers for asylum seekers. Previously, asylum
seekers with deportation orders were detained to prevent flight.
Under the new rules, detention centers cannot have their doors
locked, even in the case of individuals awaiting deportation.
Detention facilities are clean, comfortable, and relatively unrestricted.
On occasion, when no other facility is available, asylum seekers
are detained in remand prisons.
By year's end, there were 63,000
refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina who had been granted residence
permits, while 1,300 had returned to Bosnia. The country has
accepted over 100,000 refugees from the former Yugoslavia. The
Government provides funds for Bosnians to travel to their homeland
in order to determine if they wish to be repatriated. The Government
provides financial incentives for Bosnians willing to return,
but there is no forced repatriation.
Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of
Citizens to Change Their Government
The Constitution provides ways and
means for citizens to change the Government and citizens exercised
this right most recently in September. Elections to the 349-member
unicameral Parliament are held every 4 years. Suffrage is universal
for citizens 18 years and older, with secret balloting. Noncitizen
residents have the right to participate in local (city and county)
Women participate actively in the
political process and Government. They currently compose 43.6 percent
of the Parliament and half of the Cabinet. The governing Social
Democratic Party largely has held to its pledge to place women
in half of all political appointments at all levels.
Section 4 Governmental Attitude
Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged
Violations of Human Rights
Several private organizations actively
monitor issues such as the impact of social legislation, anti-immigrant
or racist activities, and the condition of the indigenous Sami
population. The official ombudsmen also publicize abuses of state
authority and have the right to initiate actions to rectify such
abuses. Government agencies are in close contact with a variety
of local and international groups working in the country and abroad
to improve human rights observance.
Section 5 Discrimination Based
on Race, Sex, Religion, Disability, Language, or Social Status
The Constitution provides for equal
rights for all citizens, and the Government respects this provision.
The Government has longstanding programs
to deal with violence against women. There were 19,093 reported
cases of assault against women in 1997, compared with 18,560 in
1996. Most involved spousal abuse. In three-quarters of the
assaults, the perpetrator was an acquaintance of the victim.
Reported abuse against women occurs disproportionately in immigrant
The law provides complainants protection
from contact with their abusers, if so desired. In some cases,
the authorities help women obtain new identities and homes. Since
1994 the Government has provided electronic alarms or bodyguards
for women in extreme danger of assault. Both national and local
governments provide monetary support to volunteer groups that
provide shelter and other assistance to abused women. The authorities
strive to apprehend and prosecute abusers. Typically, the sentence
for abuse is a prison term or psychiatric treatment. However,
women complained about short sentences and early release of offenders.
The number of reported rapes of persons
over age 15 was 1,050 in 1997 and 1,034 in 1996. The law does
not differentiate between spousal and non-spousal rape.
In December 1997, the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs announced that it would grant funds to the Foundation
Women's Forum (FWF) for a project to prevent trafficking in women.
The initial aim of the project is to identify and survey voluntary
organizations, authorities, and existing networks that work to
prevent trafficking and to support and rehabilitate the victims.
The survey covered European Union (EU) members and the FWF reported
the results of the project's initial stage to the Ministry for
Foreign Affairs. The survey indicated that there are very few
organizations in the region that monitor trafficking, but that
those opposed to prostitution recognize the need for greater efforts.
There is evidence of increasing trafficking from the Baltics
and Russia into Sweden. The FWF has applied for an EU grant to
work on this problem.
The law prohibits sexual harassment.
During the year, the law was amended to specify clearly employers'
responsibility to prevent sexual harassment in the workplace and
to formulate and post a specific policy for employees. Employers
who do not intervene against harassment at work can be obliged
to pay damages to the victim. As with other forms of discrimination,
women may take complaints to the Equality Ombudsman in the Labor
Ministry, to the courts, or to their unions.
Agriculture Minister Margareta Winberg
has the overall lead in the Government for equality issues, which
apply to women and men equally. All government investigations
and decisions must take equality considerations into account.
Stockholm University professor Dr. Agneta Stark is the leading
member of a team charged with the education of top public sector
figures and their staffs on matters of equality. The Social and
Justice Ministries are deeply involved as well, especially concerning
combating violence against women.
In 1997 journalistic investigations
focused Swedish and international attention on the country's pre-1976
practice of forced sterilization. The majority of those sterilized
were either mentally or physically disabled. Swedes had known
for years that such operations took place under pre-World War
II legislation. Between 1934 and 1976, 62,888 forced sterilizations
were carried out, 95 percent of them on women. In 1997 the Government
appointed a commission of academics and legal and medical experts
to investigate the broad legal, socio-medical, and historic circumstances
of the sterilizations. The commission, which is expected to conclude
its inquiry by July 1, 1999, is to give priority to the question
of damages to victims and will also look into the possible existence
of other categories of victims. Since the 1980's, the Government
has received 130 claims for compensation; the Government has provided
compensation in 17 instances, noting formal errors committed in
these cases. Each of the 17 persons compensated received approximately
$6,333 (SEK 50,000). Individual ministers expressed regret and
astonishment over the practice and how long it continued.
In a new study conducted by the U.N.
Development Program in 1998, Sweden received the highest ranking
on equality for women, with salaries averaging about 78 percent
of men's. The law requires employers to treat men and women alike
in hiring, promotion, and pay, including equal pay for comparable
work. The Equality Ombudsman, a public official, investigates
complaints of gender discrimination in the labor market. Women
may also pursue complaints through the courts. A third option,
and by far the most common, involves settling allegations using
the employee's labor union as mediator. In 1997 69 women and
16 men registered gender discrimination cases with the Equality
Ombudsman. None of these cases appeared before the courts in
1997. A total of 33 of the 85 cases involved women citing salary
discrimination. Nine cases were settled by mediation, 30 were
withdrawn and 10 were dropped. The remainder are pending.
Women initiated several test cases
of the "equal pay for comparable work" clause. One
case has been referred to the European Court and is widely expected
to set a precedent. All employers with more than 10 employees
must prepare an annual equality plan, including a survey of pay
differences between male and female employees. The equality ombudsman
reviews these plans.
Nine years of basic schooling are
compulsory and are provided to all children at state expense (including
transportation, books, and lunches). Municipalities are responsible
for operating day care centers and preschools for children with
working parents which are also open to others as space permits
(many children begin full-time preschool at 1 year of age). There
are also state-subsidized family day care centers and "open"
preschools (for part- or full-time attendance on an non-enrollment
or drop-in basis) as well as leisure centers for after-school
activities. Parents are provided with a government allowance
worth approximately $ 1,000 per year for each child under 16 years
of age. Families with children can obtain a means-tested housing
allowance. Children with certain severe disabilities have the
right to a personal assistant. State-funded dental care is provided
for children up to 19 years of age. According to statistics,
99 percent of all expectant mothers receive prenatal care and
visit well-baby clinics. Infant mortality rates are extremely
low (4.8 deaths per 1,000 in the first year of life). Hospital
care is state-funded for children under 16 years of age. Since
1993 the country has had a Children's Ombudsman to safeguard children's
interests and rights. The Ombudsman also ensures that the Government
lives up to its obligations under the U.N. International Convention
on the Rights of the Child. An NGO, Children's Rights in Society,
offers counseling to troubled youngsters.
The Government allocates funds to
private organizations concerned with children's rights. Sweden
remains active internationally in efforts to prevent child abuse.
In 1997 the Queen established a charity campaign, "Children
of the World," to raise funds for sexually abused children
in the Baltics, rehabilitation of child soldiers in Liberia, and
Mozambique's street children.
Although the physical abuse of children
appears relatively uncommon, the public and authorities remain
concerned by consistent data indicating an increase over the past
several years. The number of reported cases for children under
the age of 15 rose to 5,263 in 1997, up from 5,043 in 1996. The
number of reported cases of sexual abuse of children under the
age of 15 was 2,412 in 1997 and 2,418 in 1996. Many children's
rights advocates believe that this change reflects a true increase
(as opposed to an increased incidence of reporting) due to the
strains imposed on families by the difficult economic situation.
The law prohibits parents or other
caretakers from abusing children mentally or physically in any
way. Parents, teachers, and other adults are subject to prosecution
if they physically punish a child, including slapping or spanking.
Children have the right to report such abuses to the police.
The authorities respect these laws, and the usual sentence is
a fine combined with counseling and monitoring by social workers.
However, if the situation warrants authorities may remove children
from the home and place them in foster care. Foster parents virtually
never receive permission to adopt long-term foster children, even
in cases where the parents are seen as unfit or seek no contact
with the child. Critics charge that this policy places the rights
of biological parents over the needs of children for security
in permanent family situations.
People With Disabilities
While there is no specific law prohibiting
discrimination against persons with disabilities, considerable
efforts are made to ensure that the disabled enjoy equal opportunities.
Legislation to address discrimination in the workplace is under
consideration and is expected to be taken up by Parliament in
early 1999. Since 1994, the country has had an ombudsman for
disability issues. The Government provides disabled persons with
assistance aimed at allowing them to live as normal a life as
possible, preferably outside an institutional setting. This may
include a personal assistant to the severely disabled starting
in day care and continuing to the university level and at the
workplace, plus improvement of the workplace's accessibility to
wheelchairs. It also encompasses services such as home care or
group living. Regulations for new buildings require full accessibility,
but the Government has no such requirement for existing public
buildings. Many buildings and some public transportation remain
inaccessible to disabled persons. Compulsory education applies
to all disabled children. Deaf children have the right to education
in sign language.
The country counts at least 17,000
Sami (formerly known as Lapps) among its 8.85 million inhabitants
(Sami organizations place that number somewhat higher, 25,000
to 30,000). In 1994 Sweden was the last of the Nordic countries
to allow formation of a Sametinget, or Sami Parliament, as an
advisory body to the Government. Under the current Government,
Sami issues fall under the Ministry of Agriculture.
The Sami continue a protracted struggle
for recognition as an indigenous people under a variety of international
agreements, such as International Labor Organization Convention
169. Historically, the Government has resisted granting the Sami
such rights. For instance, Sami children had no right to education
in their native language until provision of such education to
immigrant children forced the Government to grant Sami at least
equal treatment. As a result of such education, northern Sami
dialects have enjoyed a recent renaissance. However, Sami dialects
in the southern portions of traditional Sami lands now may have
too few native speakers to survive as living languages.
Late in 1994, the Government removed
from the Sami the right to control hunting and fishing activities
on Sami village lands, permitting instead totally unlimited hunting
and fishing activity on all government property. Sami leaders
continued to protest this change during the year.
Although some Sami state that they
face discrimination in housing and employment on an individual
basis, particularly in the southern mountain regions, the Government
does not condone such discrimination.
For many years the Government has
supported the activities of groups working to combat anti-Semitism.
Scattered acts of violence or harassment
against minorities continued, usually from "skinheads"
with neo-Nazi sympathies. Although the Government does not compile
national statistics on such acts, in recent years there have been
roughly 100 violent incidents with racist overtones annually.
Since 1994 persons arrested and charged for such attacks have
received relatively harsh sentences. For example, during the
year several participants in a rock concert featuring pro-Nazi
songs received prison terms. Band and audience members had also
been videotaped making Nazi salutes. In another instance, a person
was sentenced to 2 months in prison after delivering a lecture
advocating Nazi philosophy at a university in northern Sweden.
The instructor who invited the lecturer was fired, released on
probation, and fined.
Most estimates place the number of
active neo-Nazis at less than 2,000, and there appears to be little
popular support for their activities or sentiments. Many Swedes
doubt whether such youth actually embrace neo-Nazi ideology, and
the Government supports activities by volunteer groups working
against racism. The Government investigates and prosecutes race-related
crimes, although in many clashes between Swedish and immigrant
youth gangs, authorities judge both sides as at fault. The Supreme
Court has ruled that it can be illegal to wear xenophobic symbols
or racist paraphernalia. Right-wing groups, which have and exercise
the right to demonstrate, are not permitted to display signs and
banners with provocative symbols at their rallies.
Section 6 Worker Rights
a. The Right of Association
The work force is around 80 percent
unionized. Career military personnel, police officers, and civilian
government officials, as well as private sector workers in both
manufacturing and service industries, are organized. Most business
owners belong to counterpart employer organizations.
Unions and employer organizations
operate independently of the Government and political parties
(although the largest federation of unions has always been linked
with the largest political party, the Social Democrats). The
law protects the freedom of workers to associate and to strike,
as well as for employers to organize and to conduct lockouts.
Within limits protecting the public's immediate health and security,
public employees also enjoy the right to strike. These laws are
fully respected and are not challenged.
Unions have the right to affiliate
with international bodies. They are affiliated with the International
Confederation of Free Trade Unions and European Trade Union Confederation
b. The Right to Organize and Bargain
Management-labor cooperation tends
to be excellent and nonconfrontational. Labor and management,
each represented by a national organization by sector (for example,
retailers and engineering industries), negotiate framework agreements
every 2 to 3 years. More detailed company-level agreements put
such framework agreements into effect at the local level. New
framework agreements were signed during the year with most valid
until 2001. In contrast with the recent past, most agreements
with labor unions now provide for a degree of individualized pay,
including merit bonuses.
The law provides both workers and
employers with effective mechanisms for resolving complaints.
The vast majority of complaints are resolved informally. Cases
of an employer firing an employee for union activities are virtually
unheard of; there were no reports of such cases during the year.
In some instances, unions even demand collective agreements regardless
of the views and union status of employees. The Government is
studying ways to strengthen the system of public mediation. There
were few strikes during the year, on an average of approximately
one legal strike per month, usually involving only one individual
and lasting 14 to 22 days. There were two wildcat strikes involving
10 to 40 persons that lasted about 10 to 15 days.
In 1997 12 employer associations
and 8 unions representing 800,000 manufacturing employees reached
an agreement on steps to prevent strikes and lockouts, such as
requiring serious wage negotiations to start 3 months before a
collective agreement expires and appointing a mediator if an agreement
has not been reached after 2 months. As a result of this agreement,
wages increased during the year by 2.5 to 3 percent following
There are no export processing zones.
c. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory
The law prohibits forced or compulsory
labor, and the authorities effectively enforce this ban. The
law prohibits forced and bonded labor by children and the Government
enforces this prohibition effectively.
d. Status of Child Labor Practices
and Minimum Age for Employment
The law prohibits forced and bonded
labor by children and the Government enforces this prohibition
effectively (see Section 6.c.). Compulsory 9-year education ends
at age 16, and the law permits full-time employment at that age
under supervision of local authorities. Employees under age 18
may work only during the daytime and under supervision. During
summer and other vacation periods, children as young as 13 years
may work part-time or in "light" work with parental
permission. Union representatives, police, and public prosecutors
effectively enforce this restriction. The Government actively
supports efforts to protect and improve children's rights. The
Government has earmarked about $8 million of its aid budget to
help fight child labor in impoverished countries.
e. Acceptable Conditions of Work
There is no national minimum wage
law. Wages are set by collective bargaining contracts, which
nonunion establishments usually observe as well. Even the lowest
paid workers can maintain a decent standard of living for themselves
and their families through substantial benefits (such as housing
or day care support) provided by social welfare entitlement programs.
However, cutbacks in these programs have made it harder for some
workers to make ends meet, particularly for low-paid single women
The standard workweek is 40 hours
or less. Both the law and collective bargaining agreements regulate
overtime and rest periods. For workers not covered by a labor
agreement, the law stipulates a limit for overtime at 200 hours
a year, although exceptions may be granted for key employees with
union approval; some collective bargaining agreements put the
limit at 150 hours. The law requires a rest period after 5 hours
of work but does not stipulate a minimum duration; in practice
it is usually 30 minutes. The law also provides all employees
with a minimum of 5 weeks of paid annual leave; labor contracts
often provide more, particularly for higher ranking private sector
employees and older public service workers. In 1997 the Government
passed a new labor law making it easier for employers to hire
workers for limited periods, as well as empowering local unions
to agree to exceptions to last-in, first-out laws.
Occupational health and safety rules are set by a government-appointed board and monitored by trained union stewards, safety ombudsmen, and, occasionally, government inspectors. These standards are very high, making workplaces both safe and healthy. Safety ombudsmen have the authority to stop unsafe activity immediately and to call in an inspector. An individual also has the right to halt work in dangerous situations in order to consult a supervisor or safety representative.
[end of document]
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