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U.S. Department of State

  Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo: An Accounting
   U.S. State Department Report • December 1999

Executive Summary
Introduction
Overview
Documenting the Abuses

The Refugee Interview Process
Postscript: Albanian Retribution and Missing Persons
Atrocities and War Crimes by Location
Appendix: List of Annotated Web Sites

Internet Links for Kosovo Information

[Editor's note: All of the following links were operational when this publication was first posted on the web. Many of the links are now obsolete and have been removed.]

U.S. GOVERNMENT SOURCES

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
http://1997-2001.state.gov/regions/eur/kosovo_hp.html
The Department's domestic site features a Kosovo page with official texts and situation reports on ethnic cleansing.

The Department's international information site features comprehensive, up-to-date information on the Kosovo crisis in multiple languages.

THE WHITE HOUSE
http://www.whitehouse.gov
The White House site contains official statements from the President, the Vice President, and White House spokespersons. It also features a link to the Kosovo Donations Coordination page of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

THE U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
http://www.info.usaid.gov/
The USAID Information Center is hosting an exhibit of photographs from the Kosovo refugee crisis titled "The Darkest Days of Spring." The online version of the exhibit is on this site. To experience the full force of these images, you can visit the Information Center's gallery in the Ronald Reagan Building in Washington, D.C. The exhibit will be on display until January 29, 2000.

THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
http://www.defenselink.mil/
DefenseLink is the main internet site for the U.S. Department of Defensewith background and press releases on U.S. defense policy and activities.

http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/lessons/
Review of Operation Allied Force, how to sustain and build upon what went right in the operation, and how to improve on identified shortcomings.

http://www.eucom.mil/europe/serbia_and_montenegro/kosovo/
The public access web information service of the U.S. European Command; this URL leads directly to the Command's page on Kosovo.

U.S. CONGRESS - COMMISSION ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE
http://www.house.gov/csce/
This is the home page of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, better known as the Helsinki Commission. The Commission is an independent agency of the United States government mandated to monitor and encourage compliance of the participating states with the Helsinki Final Act of 1975 and subsequent documents. It is composed of nine members from the United States Senate and nine members from the House of Representatives, as well as one member each from the U.S. Departments of State, Defense, and Commerce.

 

OFFICIAL MULTILATERAL SOURCES

THE UNITED NATIONS INTERIM ADMINISTRATION MISSION IN KOSOVO (UNMIK)

On June 10, 1999, the UN Security Council authorized the Secretary-General to establish in Kosovo an interim international civilian administration under which the people of the war-ravaged province could enjoy substantial autonomy. The Security Council has vested in the UN Mission authority over the territory and people of Kosovo, including all legislative and executive powers, as well as the administration of the judiciary. Never before has the United Nations assumed such broad, far-reaching and important executive tasks. Among its key tasks, the Mission will: promote the establishment of substantial autonomy and self-government in Kosovo; perform basic civilian administrative functions; facilitate a political process to determine Kosovo's future status; support the reconstruction of key infrastructure and humanitarian and disaster relief; maintain civil law and order; promote human rights; and assure the safe and unimpeded return of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes in Kosovo.

 "The task before the international community is to help the people in Kosovo to rebuild their lives and heal the wounds of conflict."

--UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan

THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA (ICTY)
http://www.un.org/icty/index.html
The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), located in The Hague, was established by the United Nations Security Council May 25, 1993. The ICTY is mandated to prosecute persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991. These include grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, violations of the laws or customs of war, genocide, and crimes against humanity. This site keeps the reader abreast of indictments, indictees, detentions, convictions, acquittals, and the status of each.

ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE
http://www.osce.org/kosovo
The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) has opened two new field offices in Kosovo to expand its work in building a civil society in the province. The initial focus for the field offices will be human rights work, development of political parties, assisting NGOs, and helping with democratization. Field offices are central to the work of the OCSE, putting people directly into the communities in which they are working. These offices form part of a network under five regional centers. With the opening of field offices in Dragas and Kosovo Polje, there are now ten OSCE field offices in Kosovo.

NATO
http://www.nato.int
The NATO site provides an overview of briefings and background information made available during the air campaign (March 25 to June 10) as well as up-to-date information on the UN-mandated international peacekeeping force (Kosovo Force or KFOR). The site provides information on humanitarian aid by the Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre (EADRCC) established at NATO Headquarters by NATO Allies and Partners for Peace in June 1998.

ALLIED FORCES SOUTHERN EUROPE
http://www.afsouth.nato.int
NATO's AFSOUTH is one of the two Regional Commands of NATO's Allied Command Europe (ACE). The southern region embodies NATO's forward presence, with an area of responsibility that stretches west to east from the Atlantic approaches to the Mediterranean to the Black Sea and the Middle East coastline, and north to south from the Alps to the North African coast. Featured on the site is Operation Joint Guardian, a NATO contingency response aimed at ensuring full compliance with the Military Technical Agreement signed by NATO and FRY military authorities on June 9, 1999, and with UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (June 10, 1999). Its main aim is to allow safe return of refugees and displaced persons, to help alleviate human suffering, and to achieve a peace settlement in Kosovo.

UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES
http://www.unhcr.ch
The premier online source for refugee-related information: includes country profiles, news, maps, publications, teachers' modules, Witness multimedia documentaries, and the REFWORLD research databases. The Web site features basic information about UNHCR and refugees - ordinary people who have left their homes to escape war, persecution, and human rights abuse - and press releases and other timely information about refugee situations worldwide. Includes the UNHCR Newswire Service and "Refugees Daily," a daily digest of the latest refugee news reported by the world's media.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND SECURITY NETWORK (ISN)

ISN is a one-stop information service in the fields of international relations and security. Among the services offered are an annotated links library, a limited area search tool (ISN LASE), a selection of resources on current world affairs, and specialized fact databases. ISN was started in 1994 as a result of the first "Institutes and the Security Dialogue" conference (now the "International Security Forum") held in Zurich. It is coordinated and developed by the Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research at the ETH Zurich in cooperation with numerous international partners. The project is supported by the Swiss Government as an official part of Switzerland's participation in Partnership for Peace.

 

NEWS SOURCES

THE VOICE OF AMERICA
http://www.voa.gov/
The latest news from the VOA newsroom; see the "Balkan Coverage" page for the Live News Program Schedule for English and Balkan Services.

RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY
http://www.rferl.org/
"Everyone has the right...to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers." (Universal Declaration of Human Rights)--Audio and text of Kosovo news is online in English, Russian, Albanian, and the languages of the former Yugoslavia. There is a European mirror site for users in Europe and Asia.

RADIO B92
http://www.freeb92.net/
B92 Radio is now back on the air on local FM in Belgrade. The Web site includes a regular section on repression of the media in Yugoslavia.

 

HUMANITARIAN RELIEF SITES

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS
http://www.icrc.org
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is an impartial, neutral, and independent organization whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and to provide them with assistance. It directs and coordinates the international relief activities conducted by the movement in situations of conflict. It also endeavors to prevent suffering by promoting and strengthening humanitarian law and universal humanitarian principles. Established in 1863, the ICRC is at the origin of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

RELIEFWEB
http://www.reliefweb.int
ReliefWeb is a project of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The purpose of this effort is to strengthen the response capacity of the humanitarian relief community through the timely dissemination of reliable information on prevention, preparedness, and disaster response.

LYCOS NEWS--HELP FOR KOSOVAR REFUGEES
http://www.lycos.com/news/flash/kosovohelp.html
A list of links to many of the organizations assisting the hundreds of thousands who have fled Kosovo, and information on some of the services they are providing.

DOCTORS WITHOUT BORDERS (MEDECINS SANS FRONTIERES)
Doctors Without Borders/Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), the 1999 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, is the world's largest independent international medical relief agency aiding victims of armed conflict, epidemics, and natural and man-made disasters and others who lack health care due to geographic remoteness or ethnic marginalization. Annually, more than 2,000 volunteers representing 45 nationalities work in over 80 countries in front line hospitals, refugee camps, disaster sites, towns, and villages. Doctors Without Borders teams provide primary health care, perform surgery, vaccinate children, rehabilitate hospitals, operate emergency nutrition and sanitation programs, and train local medical staff.

INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP
http://www.crisisweb.org/projects/sbalkans/kosovo.html
The International Crisis Group is a private, multinational organization committed to strengthening the capacity of the international community to understand and respond to impending crises. ICG's approach is grounded in field research, with reports distributed widely to foreign ministries, international organizations, journalists, and others. The ICG Board is chaired by former U.S. Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell. ICG currently operates field projects in eight countries. This is the ICG's South Balkans project on Kosovo.

ICG's South Balkans project is looking at Kosovo in depth during 1999. ICG has moved a team of analysts into Kosovo to monitor the peace process and support efforts to defuse tensions, establish rule of law, and create a functioning system of self-government. With this mandate, a new full-time office in Pristina will concentrate on the role of the international community in Kosovo, internal developments in Kosovar politics and the relationship between the two.

INTERACTION
http://www.interaction.org/kosovo/index.html
InterAction is a coalition of more than 160 humanitarian organizations working on disaster relief, refugee-assistance, and sustainable development programs worldwide. This site provides information on the humanitarian response to Kosovo.

MERCY CORPS INTERNATIONAL
http://www.mercycorps.org/focus/index.html
Mercy's mission is to alleviate suffering, poverty, and oppression by helping people around the world build safe and productive communities. Partnerships with other organizations are helping Mercy build a global humanitarian movement that is helping 2.2 million people in 23 countries. This URL opens to the Kosovo Focus page.

KOSOVA HUMANITARIAN AID ORGANIZATION
http://www.kosova.nu/
The Kosova Humanitarian Aid Organization is looking to coordinate efforts with other individuals and NGOs to help the Kosovars survive during their hardships. In Albanian and English.

MISSING PERSONS/PEOPLE LOCATOR SITES
 http://www.refugjat.org

 

HUMAN RIGHTS SITES

KOSOVO FOCUS ON HUMAN RIGHTS
http://www.hrw.org/hrw/campaigns/kosovo98/index.html
The Kosovo Web site of Human Rights Watch, an organization "dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world."

THE COALITION FOR INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE
http://www.cij.org/
The Coalition for International Justice (CIJ) is an international, non-profit organization working to support the international war crimes tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia. CIJ provides support through advocacy, fundraising, working with other Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and by providing technical legal assistance.

AMNESTY INTERNTIONAL
http://www.amnesty.org
Amnesty International is a worldwide campaigning movement that works to promote all the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international standards. In particular, Amnesty International campaigns to free all prisoners of conscience; ensure fair and prompt trials for political prisoners; abolish the death penalty, torture, and other cruel treatment of prisoners; end political killings and "disappearances"; and oppose human rights abuses by opposition groups.

INTERNATIONAL HELSINKI FEDERATION FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
http://www.ihf-hr.org/
The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights is a self-governing group of non-governmental, not-for-profit organizations that act, to protect human rights throughout Europe, North America, and the Central Asian republics formed from the territories of the former Soviet Union. A primary specific goal is to monitor compliance with the human rights provisions of the Helsinki Final Act and its Follow-up Documents. A secretariat based in Vienna supports and provides liaison among 39 member "Helsinki committees" and associated human rights groups. The IHF also has direct links with individuals and groups supporting human rights in countries where no Helsinki committees exist. In addition to gathering and analyzing information on human rights conditions in OSCE participating States, the IHF acts as a clearinghouse for this information, disseminating it to governments, inter-governmental organizations, the press, and the public at large. The IHF is active in all the Balkan countries.

PHYSICIANS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
http://www.phrusa.org/new/index.html#kosovo
Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) is an organization of health professionals, scientists, and concerned citizens that uses the knowledge and skills of the medical and forensic sciences to investigate and prevent violations of international human rights and humanitarian law. Since 1986, PHR members have worked to stop torture, disappearances, and political killings by governments and opposition groups; to improve health and sanitary conditions in prisons and detention centers; to investigate the physical and psychological consequences of violations of humanitarian law in internal and international conflicts; to defend medical neutrality and the right of civilians and combatants to receive medical care during times of war; to protect health professionals who are victims of violations of human rights; and to prevent medical complicity in torture and other abuses. This URL opens to the PHR section on Kosovo.

FREEDOM HOUSE
http://www.freedomhouse.org/
Freedom House was founded nearly 60 years ago by Eleanor Roosevelt, Wendell Willkie, and other Americans concerned with the mounting threats to peace and democracy. Freedom House has been a proponent of democratic values and an opponent of dictatorships of the far left and the far right. Non-partisan and broad-based, Freedom House is a proponent of the view that American leadership in international affairs is essential to the cause of human rights and freedom.

http://freedomhouse.org/nit98/yugo.html
Freedom House's "Nations in Transit" report on Yugoslavia.

http://freedomhouse.org/survey99/country/yugo.html
Freedom House's "Freedom in the World" survey on Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).

COUNCIL FOR THE DEFENCE OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS IN PRISHTINA
http://albanian.com/kmdlnj/
The Council for the Defence of Human Rights and Freedoms (CDHRF ) "documents human rights abuses of the Serbian authorities in primarily ethnic Albanian inhabited Kosova." The site provides information about the CDHRF and weekly, monthly, and annual reports (in English and Albanian) on human rights violations in Kosova.

 

OTHER RELEVANT SITES

CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE--INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION POLICY
The Endowment's International Migration Policy Program is a leading source of expert analysis and policy ideas on migration and refugee issues. The Program focuses on bridging the worlds of research and policy in these areas, bringing an independent voice to migration and refugee policy debates here and abroad, and enhancing public understanding of these and related issues. There are a number of items on Kosovo.

THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTE (NDI)
http://www.ndi.org/
The National Democratic Institute is a nonprofit organization working to strengthen and expand democracy worldwide. Calling on a global network of volunteer experts, NDI provides practical assistance to civic and political leaders advancing democratic values, practices, and institutions. The Institute works with those who are struggling to promote peaceful political reform. It establishes partnerships with political leaders who have begun the difficult task of building stable pluralistic institutions and creating better lives for their citizens.

http://www.ndi.org/eaeurop.html
Information on NDI programs in Central and Eastern Europe.

INTERNATIONAL REPUBLICAN INSTITUTE
http://www.iri.org/
IRI conducts programs outside the United States to promote democracy and strengthen free markets and the rule of law. The programs are tailored to the needs of pro-democracy activists in over 30 countries and include, for example, grassroots political organizing, campaign management, polling, parliamentary training, judicial reform and election monitoring. By aiding emerging democracies, IRI plays a role in helping bring greater stability to the world. IRI's programs are nonpartisan and adhere to fundamental American principles such as individual liberty, the rule of law, and the entrepreneurial spirit that fosters economic development.

http://www.iri.org/region.asp?region=3501964612
Information on IRI programs in Central and Eastern Europe.

CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL PRIVATE ENTERPRISE
http://www.cipe.org/
The Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE) works in four principal areas: a grants program that currently supports over 90 indigenous organizations in developing countries, an award winning communications strategy, training programs, and technical assistance through field offices. Since its inception in 1983, CIPE has funded more than 550 projects in 70 countries and has conducted management training programs throughout the world.

THE FUND FOR AN OPEN SOCIETY - YUGOSLAVIA
http://www.soros.org/natfound.html
The Fund for an Open Society - Yugoslavia was established in 1991 to promote the development of open society in Yugoslavia. The Foundation supports a variety of programs in the areas of educational, social, legal, and health care reform. It is an affiliate of the Soros Foundations Network, dedicated to building open societies around the world.

BALKAN PEACE TEAM
http://www.igc.apc.org/pbi/bpt.html
In 1993, a number of organizations, including International Fellowship of Reconciliation (IFOR), Peace Brigades International (PBI), and War Resisters International (WRI), received requests from Croatia and Kosovo for an international presence. A joint project was formed, the Balkan Peace Team, which now has 11 member organizations. The first team arrived in Croatia in February 1994, using the local name Otvorene Oci - Open Eyes - with volunteers both in northern Croatia (Karlovac) and in Split. The work includes accompaniment of peace and human rights activists, presence at apartment evictions and court trials, making official contacts, visiting refugee camps, and networking with local people. A team has been established in Belgrade, working in Serbia and making regular visits to Kosovo.

KOSOVO CRISIS CENTER
http://www.alb-net.com/index.html
The Alb-Net.Com Group was established by a "few but very determined Albanian students and professionals" with the intent to provide Albanian communities around the world with up-to-date news directly from Pristina and other sources. The "Free Kosova" page presents "factual material that unveils a systematic pattern of Serb atrocities and aggressions against everything Albanian in Kosova."

OPEN CHANNELS FOR KOSOVO
http://www.dds.nl/openchannels
A Press Now web site on "Voices from the Region." Ever since April 1993, Press Now has stood for the independent media in former Yugoslavia. Press Now wants to inform politicians, the press, and the general public on the media in former Yugoslavia by means of public programs and campaigns, to raise money and to gather equipment for independent media in the former Yugoslavia, and to bring the media there in touch with Dutch media to provide structural support to related newspapers and broadcasters. Press Now supports those media in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia, where it is an established fact: 1) that they are not state-owned; 2) that their editorial policy is not influenced by governmental structures; 3) that they are not connected to any political party; 4) that they do not spread propaganda; 5) that they take a stand against war and ethnic conflicts; and 6) that they contribute to a reconstruction of democracy.

NETWORK OF EAST-WEST WOMEN
http://www.neww.org/kosova/
The Network of East-West Women links women across national and regional boundaries to share resources, knowledge and skills. NEWW's mission is to empower women and girls throughout the East (Central and Eastern Europe, and NIS and the Russian Federation) and the West by dialogue, networking, campaigns, and educational and informational exchanges. NEWW supports action and joint projects inspired by feminist principles. This is NEWW's Kosovo page.

SOCIETY FOR EDUCATION OF WOMEN--"MOTRAT QIRIAZI"
http://www.igc.apc.org/balkans/quiriazi.html
Named after the two sisters Qiriazi, who founded the first school for girls in Korca (Albania) 100 years ago, two sisters from Pristina, Safete and Igballe Rogova, formed a society for education of women: "Motrat Qiriazi" (Sisters Qiriazi). With the formation of the Women's Network in Pristina and with the collaboration of other women's groups Motrat Qiriazi started its activities in February 1995. Motrat Qiriazi, which provides fresh educational possibilities for women, is dedicated to: 1) Understanding the problems, needs, and desires of rural women; 2) raising the consciousness of rural women and breaking their isolation by facilitating the exchange of ideas and skills between rural and urban women; 3) supporting the democratization of the family and aiding in the elimination of all forms of violence against women; and 4) addressing issues like health education and the importance of high school education for girls. The health component involves bringing gynecologists, pediatricians, and general practitioners to hold discussions about pertinent health issues, answer questions, and provide information.

ALTERNATIVE INFORMATION NETWORK IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA
http://www.aimpress.ch/
AIM (Alternativna Informativna Mreza) is a project of independent journalists from former Yugoslavia and the European Civic Forum. AIM was established in 1992 to offer unbiased high-quality professional information. Its network of journalists covers all the states of former Yugoslavia and Albania. AIM encourages the foundation of new independent media providing them with a reliable source of information. AIM texts are available in Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and English.

INSTITUTE FOR WAR AND PEACE REPORTING
http://www.iwpr.net/
The Institute for War & Peace Reporting (IWPR) is an independent publishing and media group that aims to inform the international debate on conflict and provide training and a platform for independent media and other democratic voices. Through this work, IWPR aims to contribute to the resolution of conflict and to the strengthening of civil society, democracy, and the rule of law. Founded in 1991, the Institute focuses on the Balkans, the Caucasus, and other areas in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The central aim is to support media development through practical assistance and concrete journalistic projects.

Links to websites outside the U.S. Government should not be construed as an endorsement of contents contained therein.

 
  
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