[Editor's note: All of the following links were operational when this publication was first posted on the web. Many of the links are now obsolete and have been removed.]
The Department's domestic site features a Kosovo page with official texts
and situation reports on ethnic cleansing.
The Department's international information site features comprehensive,
up-to-date information on the Kosovo crisis in multiple languages.
The White House site contains official statements from the President, the Vice President, and White House spokespersons. It also features a link to the Kosovo Donations Coordination page of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
THE U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
The USAID Information Center is hosting an exhibit of photographs from the Kosovo refugee crisis titled "The Darkest Days of Spring." The online version of the exhibit is on this site. To experience the full force of these images, you can visit the Information Center's gallery in the Ronald Reagan Building in Washington, D.C. The exhibit will be on display until January 29, 2000.
THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
DefenseLink is the main internet site for the U.S. Department of Defensewith background and press releases on U.S. defense policy and activities.
Review of Operation Allied Force, how to sustain and build upon what went right in the operation, and how to improve on identified shortcomings.
The public access web information service of the U.S. European Command; this URL leads directly to the Command's page on Kosovo.
U.S. CONGRESS - COMMISSION ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE
This is the home page of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, better known as the Helsinki Commission. The Commission is an independent agency of the United States government mandated to monitor and encourage compliance of the participating states with the Helsinki Final Act of 1975 and subsequent documents. It is composed of nine members from the United States Senate and nine members from the House of Representatives, as well as one member each from the U.S. Departments of State, Defense, and Commerce.
OFFICIAL MULTILATERAL SOURCES
THE UNITED NATIONS INTERIM ADMINISTRATION MISSION IN KOSOVO (UNMIK)
On June 10, 1999, the UN Security Council authorized the Secretary-General to establish in Kosovo an interim international civilian administration under which the people of the war-ravaged province could enjoy substantial autonomy. The Security Council has vested in the UN Mission authority over the territory and people of Kosovo, including all legislative and executive powers, as well as the administration of the judiciary. Never before has the United Nations assumed such broad, far-reaching and important executive tasks. Among its key tasks, the Mission will: promote the establishment of substantial autonomy and self-government in Kosovo; perform basic civilian administrative functions; facilitate a political process to determine Kosovo's future status; support the reconstruction of key infrastructure and humanitarian and disaster relief; maintain civil law and order; promote human rights; and assure the safe and unimpeded return of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes in Kosovo.
"The task before the international community is to help the people in Kosovo to rebuild their lives and heal the wounds of conflict."
--UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan
CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA (ICTY)
The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY),
located in The Hague, was established by the United Nations Security Council
May 25, 1993. The ICTY is mandated to prosecute persons responsible for serious
violations of international humanitarian law committed on the territory of
the former Yugoslavia since 1991. These include grave breaches of the 1949
Geneva Conventions, violations of the laws or customs of war, genocide, and
crimes against humanity. This site keeps the reader abreast of indictments,
indictees, detentions, convictions, acquittals, and the status of each.
ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND
COOPERATION IN EUROPE
The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) has opened
two new field offices in Kosovo to expand its work in building a civil society
in the province. The initial focus for the field offices will be human rights
work, development of political parties, assisting NGOs, and helping with democratization.
Field offices are central to the work of the OCSE, putting people directly
into the communities in which they are working. These offices form part of
a network under five regional centers. With the opening of field offices in
Dragas and Kosovo Polje, there are now ten OSCE field offices in Kosovo.
The NATO site provides an overview of briefings and background information
made available during the air campaign (March 25 to June 10) as well as up-to-date
information on the UN-mandated international peacekeeping force (Kosovo Force
or KFOR). The site provides information on humanitarian aid by the Euro-Atlantic
Disaster Response Coordination Centre (EADRCC) established at NATO Headquarters
by NATO Allies and Partners for Peace in June 1998.
ALLIED FORCES SOUTHERN
AFSOUTH is one of the two Regional Commands of NATO's Allied Command Europe
(ACE). The southern region embodies NATO's forward presence, with an area
of responsibility that stretches west to east from the Atlantic approaches
to the Mediterranean to the Black Sea and the Middle East coastline, and north
to south from the Alps to the North African coast. Featured on the site is
Operation Joint Guardian, a NATO contingency response aimed at ensuring full
compliance with the Military Technical Agreement signed by NATO and FRY military
authorities on June 9, 1999, and with UN Security Council Resolution 1244
(June 10, 1999). Its main aim is to allow safe return of refugees and displaced
persons, to help alleviate human suffering, and to achieve a peace settlement
UNITED NATIONS HIGH
COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES
The premier online source for refugee-related information: includes country
profiles, news, maps, publications, teachers' modules, Witness multimedia
documentaries, and the REFWORLD research databases. The Web site features
basic information about UNHCR and refugees - ordinary people who have left
their homes to escape war, persecution, and human rights abuse - and press
releases and other timely information about refugee situations worldwide.
Includes the UNHCR Newswire Service and "Refugees Daily," a daily
digest of the latest refugee news reported by the world's media.
RELATIONS AND SECURITY NETWORK (ISN)
is a one-stop information service in the fields of international relations
and security. Among the services offered are an annotated links library, a
limited area search tool (ISN LASE), a selection of resources on current world
affairs, and specialized fact databases. ISN was started in 1994 as a result
of the first "Institutes and the Security Dialogue" conference (now
the "International Security Forum") held in Zurich. It is coordinated
and developed by the Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research at
the ETH Zurich in cooperation with numerous international partners. The project
is supported by the Swiss Government as an official part of Switzerland's
participation in Partnership for Peace.
THE VOICE OF AMERICA
The latest news from the VOA newsroom; see the "Balkan Coverage"
page for the Live News Program Schedule for English and Balkan Services.
RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO
"Everyone has the right...to seek, receive, and impart information and
ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers." (Universal Declaration
of Human Rights)--Audio and text of Kosovo news is online in English, Russian,
Albanian, and the languages of the former Yugoslavia. There is a European
mirror site for users in Europe and Asia.
Radio is now back on the air on local FM in Belgrade. The Web site includes
a regular section on repression of the media in Yugoslavia.
OF THE RED CROSS
The International Committee
of the Red Cross (ICRC) is an impartial, neutral, and independent organization
whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity
of victims of war and internal violence and to provide them with assistance.
It directs and coordinates the international relief activities conducted by
the movement in situations of conflict. It also endeavors to prevent suffering
by promoting and strengthening humanitarian law and universal humanitarian
principles. Established in 1863, the ICRC is at the origin of the International
Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
is a project of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian
Affairs (OCHA). The purpose of this effort is to strengthen the response capacity
of the humanitarian relief community through the timely dissemination of reliable
information on prevention, preparedness, and disaster response.
LYCOS NEWS--HELP FOR
A list of links to many of the organizations assisting the hundreds of thousands
who have fled Kosovo, and information on some of the services they are providing.
DOCTORS WITHOUT BORDERS
(MEDECINS SANS FRONTIERES)
Doctors Without Borders/Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), the 1999 Nobel Peace
Prize laureate, is the world's largest independent international medical relief
agency aiding victims of armed conflict, epidemics, and natural and man-made
disasters and others who lack health care due to geographic remoteness or
ethnic marginalization. Annually, more than 2,000 volunteers representing
45 nationalities work in over 80 countries in front line hospitals, refugee
camps, disaster sites, towns, and villages. Doctors Without Borders teams
provide primary health care, perform surgery, vaccinate children, rehabilitate
hospitals, operate emergency nutrition and sanitation programs, and train
local medical staff.
South Balkans project is looking at Kosovo in depth during 1999. ICG has moved
a team of analysts into Kosovo to monitor the peace process and support efforts
to defuse tensions, establish rule of law, and create a functioning system
of self-government. With this mandate, a new full-time office in Pristina
will concentrate on the role of the international community in Kosovo, internal
developments in Kosovar politics and the relationship between the two.
International Crisis Group is a private, multinational organization committed
to strengthening the capacity of the international community to understand
and respond to impending crises. ICG's approach is grounded in field research,
with reports distributed widely to foreign ministries, international organizations,
journalists, and others. The ICG Board is chaired by former U.S. Senate Majority
Leader George Mitchell. ICG currently operates field projects in eight countries.
This is the ICG's South Balkans project on Kosovo.
is a coalition of more than 160 humanitarian organizations working on disaster
relief, refugee-assistance, and sustainable development programs worldwide.
This site provides information on the humanitarian response to Kosovo.
MERCY CORPS INTERNATIONAL
mission is to alleviate suffering, poverty, and oppression by helping people
around the world build safe and productive communities. Partnerships with
other organizations are helping Mercy build a global humanitarian movement
that is helping 2.2 million people in 23 countries. This URL opens to the
Kosovo Focus page.
The Kosova Humanitarian
Aid Organization is looking to coordinate efforts with other individuals and
NGOs to help the Kosovars survive during their hardships. In Albanian and
KOSOVO FOCUS ON
Kosovo Web site of Human Rights Watch, an organization "dedicated to
protecting the human rights of people around the world."
THE COALITION FOR
The Coalition for International
Justice (CIJ) is an international, non-profit organization working to support
the international war crimes tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia.
CIJ provides support through advocacy, fundraising, working with other Non-Governmental
Organizations (NGOs), and by providing technical legal assistance.
is a worldwide campaigning movement that works to promote all the human rights
enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international
standards. In particular, Amnesty International campaigns to free all prisoners
of conscience; ensure fair and prompt trials for political prisoners; abolish
the death penalty, torture, and other cruel treatment of prisoners; end political
killings and "disappearances"; and oppose human rights abuses by
FEDERATION FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
Helsinki Federation for Human Rights is a self-governing group of non-governmental,
not-for-profit organizations that act, to protect human rights throughout
Europe, North America, and the Central Asian republics formed from the territories
of the former Soviet Union. A primary specific goal is to monitor compliance
with the human rights provisions of the Helsinki Final Act and its Follow-up
Documents. A secretariat based in Vienna supports and provides liaison among
39 member "Helsinki committees" and associated human rights groups.
The IHF also has direct links with individuals and groups supporting human
rights in countries where no Helsinki committees exist. In addition to gathering
and analyzing information on human rights conditions in OSCE participating
States, the IHF acts as a clearinghouse for this information, disseminating
it to governments, inter-governmental organizations, the press, and the public
at large. The IHF is active in all the Balkan countries.
PHYSICIANS FOR HUMAN
for Human Rights (PHR) is an organization of health professionals, scientists,
and concerned citizens that uses the knowledge and skills of the medical and
forensic sciences to investigate and prevent violations of international human
rights and humanitarian law. Since 1986, PHR members have worked to stop torture,
disappearances, and political killings by governments and opposition groups;
to improve health and sanitary conditions in prisons and detention centers;
to investigate the physical and psychological consequences of violations of
humanitarian law in internal and international conflicts; to defend medical
neutrality and the right of civilians and combatants to receive medical care
during times of war; to protect health professionals who are victims of violations
of human rights; and to prevent medical complicity in torture and other abuses.
This URL opens to the PHR section on Kosovo.
House was founded nearly 60 years ago by Eleanor Roosevelt, Wendell Willkie,
and other Americans concerned with the mounting threats to peace and democracy.
Freedom House has been a proponent of democratic values and an opponent of
dictatorships of the far left and the far right. Non-partisan and broad-based,
Freedom House is a proponent of the view that American leadership in international
affairs is essential to the cause of human rights and freedom.
House's "Nations in Transit" report on Yugoslavia.
Freedom House's "Freedom in the World" survey on Yugoslavia (Serbia
COUNCIL FOR THE DEFENCE
OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS IN PRISHTINA
for the Defence of Human Rights and Freedoms (CDHRF ) "documents human
rights abuses of the Serbian authorities in primarily ethnic Albanian inhabited
Kosova." The site provides information about the CDHRF and weekly, monthly,
and annual reports (in English and Albanian) on human rights violations in
FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE--INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION POLICY
Endowment's International Migration Policy Program is a leading source of
expert analysis and policy ideas on migration and refugee issues. The Program
focuses on bridging the worlds of research and policy in these areas, bringing
an independent voice to migration and refugee policy debates here and abroad,
and enhancing public understanding of these and related issues. There are
a number of items on Kosovo.
THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC
The National Democratic
Institute is a nonprofit organization working to strengthen and expand democracy
worldwide. Calling on a global network of volunteer experts, NDI provides
practical assistance to civic and political leaders advancing democratic values,
practices, and institutions. The Institute works with those who are struggling
to promote peaceful political reform. It establishes partnerships with political
leaders who have begun the difficult task of building stable pluralistic institutions
and creating better lives for their citizens.
on NDI programs in Central and Eastern Europe.
IRI conducts programs
outside the United States to promote democracy and strengthen free markets
and the rule of law. The programs are tailored to the needs of pro-democracy
activists in over 30 countries and include, for example, grassroots political
organizing, campaign management, polling, parliamentary training, judicial
reform and election monitoring. By aiding emerging democracies, IRI plays
a role in helping bring greater stability to the world. IRI's programs are
nonpartisan and adhere to fundamental American principles such as individual
liberty, the rule of law, and the entrepreneurial spirit that fosters economic
on IRI programs in Central and Eastern Europe.
CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL
The Center for International
Private Enterprise (CIPE) works in four principal areas: a grants program
that currently supports over 90 indigenous organizations in developing countries,
an award winning communications strategy, training programs, and technical
assistance through field offices. Since its inception in 1983, CIPE has funded
more than 550 projects in 70 countries and has conducted management training
programs throughout the world.
THE FUND FOR AN OPEN
SOCIETY - YUGOSLAVIA
Fund for an Open Society - Yugoslavia was established in 1991 to promote the
development of open society in Yugoslavia. The Foundation supports a variety
of programs in the areas of educational, social, legal, and health care reform.
It is an affiliate of the Soros Foundations Network, dedicated to building
open societies around the world.
BALKAN PEACE TEAM
1993, a number of organizations, including International Fellowship of Reconciliation
(IFOR), Peace Brigades International (PBI), and War Resisters International
(WRI), received requests from Croatia and Kosovo for an international presence.
A joint project was formed, the Balkan Peace Team, which now has 11 member
organizations. The first team arrived in Croatia in February 1994, using the
local name Otvorene Oci - Open Eyes - with volunteers both in northern Croatia
(Karlovac) and in Split. The work includes accompaniment of peace and human
rights activists, presence at apartment evictions and court trials, making
official contacts, visiting refugee camps, and networking with local people.
A team has been established in Belgrade, working in Serbia and making regular
visits to Kosovo.
KOSOVO CRISIS CENTER
Alb-Net.Com Group was established by a "few but very determined Albanian
students and professionals" with the intent to provide Albanian communities
around the world with up-to-date news directly from Pristina and other sources.
The "Free Kosova" page presents "factual material that unveils
a systematic pattern of Serb atrocities and aggressions against everything
Albanian in Kosova."
OPEN CHANNELS FOR
Press Now web site on "Voices from the Region." Ever since April
1993, Press Now has stood for the independent media in former Yugoslavia.
Press Now wants to inform politicians, the press, and the general public on
the media in former Yugoslavia by means of public programs and campaigns,
to raise money and to gather equipment for independent media in the former
Yugoslavia, and to bring the media there in touch with Dutch media to provide
structural support to related newspapers and broadcasters. Press Now supports
those media in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro,
Serbia, and Slovenia, where it is an established fact: 1) that they are not
state-owned; 2) that their editorial policy is not influenced by governmental
structures; 3) that they are not connected to any political party; 4) that
they do not spread propaganda; 5) that they take a stand against war and ethnic
conflicts; and 6) that they contribute to a reconstruction of democracy.
NETWORK OF EAST-WEST
of East-West Women links women across national and regional boundaries to
share resources, knowledge and skills. NEWW's mission is to empower women
and girls throughout the East (Central and Eastern Europe, and NIS and the
Russian Federation) and the West by dialogue, networking, campaigns, and educational
and informational exchanges. NEWW supports action and joint projects inspired
by feminist principles. This is NEWW's Kosovo page.
SOCIETY FOR EDUCATION
OF WOMEN--"MOTRAT QIRIAZI"
after the two sisters Qiriazi, who founded the first school for girls in Korca
(Albania) 100 years ago, two sisters from Pristina, Safete and Igballe Rogova,
formed a society for education of women: "Motrat Qiriazi" (Sisters
Qiriazi). With the formation of the Women's Network in Pristina and with the
collaboration of other women's groups Motrat Qiriazi started its activities
in February 1995. Motrat Qiriazi, which provides fresh educational possibilities
for women, is dedicated to: 1) Understanding the problems, needs, and desires
of rural women; 2) raising the consciousness of rural women and breaking their
isolation by facilitating the exchange of ideas and skills between rural and
urban women; 3) supporting the democratization of the family and aiding in
the elimination of all forms of violence against women; and 4) addressing
issues like health education and the importance of high school education for
girls. The health component involves bringing gynecologists, pediatricians,
and general practitioners to hold discussions about pertinent health issues,
answer questions, and provide information.
INFORMATION NETWORK IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA
AIM (Alternativna Informativna Mreza) is a project of independent journalists
from former Yugoslavia and the European Civic Forum. AIM was established in
1992 to offer unbiased high-quality professional information. Its network
of journalists covers all the states of former Yugoslavia and Albania. AIM
encourages the foundation of new independent media providing them with a reliable
source of information. AIM texts are available in Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian,
INSTITUTE FOR WAR
AND PEACE REPORTING
The Institute for War & Peace Reporting (IWPR) is an independent publishing
and media group that aims to inform the international debate on conflict and
provide training and a platform for independent media and other democratic
voices. Through this work, IWPR aims to contribute to the resolution of conflict
and to the strengthening of civil society, democracy, and the rule of law.
Founded in 1991, the Institute focuses on the Balkans, the Caucasus, and other
areas in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The central aim is to
support media development through practical assistance and concrete journalistic
Links to websites outside the U.S. Government
should not be construed as an endorsement of contents contained therein.