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International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1999
Released by the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. Department of State
Washington, DC, March 2000

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I. Summary

During 1999, Benin continued to make modest and incremental progress in the fight against illegal narcotics trafficking for which it remains a transit route (next door to Nigeria). Benin itself is not a narcotics producing country. The Government of Benin (GOB) made one notable heroin seizure at its international airport. It also continued an investigation into a drug smuggling operation involving members of its UN Mission in New York and use of its Diplomatic Pouch. Benin officials have been very cooperative with USG on a variety of drug control law enforcement efforts. Unfortunately, a poor country like Benin is unable to allocate adequate resources to law enforcement generally and to drug control programs in particular. Benin is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Benin is not, and is not likely to become, a significant producer of drugs or a source of precursor chemicals. Marijuana is grown in Benin but quantities are not large, and that marijuana is consumed almost exclusively within Benin. Benin, due to its proximity to Nigeria and its relatively porous borders, is believed to be a transit point for drugs to and from Nigeria. Money laundering is known to take place in Benin. Traffickers use legal businesses such as the building trades to camouflage drug operations and buy assets, particularly real estate, to launder illicit profits. GOB authorities suspect that the flourishing market in used cars and second-hand clothing are used as a method of laundering drug money, but have not taken robust measures to interfere with these commercial activities.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 1999

Policy Initiatives. The government in Benin has yet to put into place an apparatus to enforce the comprehensive anti-narcotics law that was enacted in 1997. This law provides for stronger sentences for traffickers, establishes a basis for asset forfeiture, criminalizes money laundering, and promotes increased inter-agency cooperation in combating trafficking. The law was based on a model law prepared by the UNDCP to bring countries into compliance with the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

Accomplishments. The only major and tangible accomplishment recorded in Benin in 1999 was a follow-up by the government to its own arrest of several members of its UN mission staff. In 1998, Yacoubou Fassassi, Benin's Ambassador to the United Nations, was arrested by the Beninese authorities for allegedly using his government's diplomatic pouch to introduce narcotics into the United States. He was jailed in April and tried in August 1999. Charges against Fassassi were eventually dropped for lack of evidence and Fassassi was acquitted. Nevertheless, he was not restored to his position at the UN, being replaced by a new Beninese UN resident representative in New York. Fassassi soon thereafter departed for France, reportedly for medical treatment. Three co-defendants, however, either pleaded guilty or were tried in absentia. One of them, Charles Nobre, a prominent businessman, received a five-year sentence in the case. Many observers believe the trial and the convictions, which left Fassassi untouched, were rigged due to Fassassi's wealth and political ties.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Law enforcement efforts appear to be hampered by lack of cooperation among government agencies. In one case, after a major drug seizure, one agency (police customs) refused to cooperate with another agency (gendarmes) on the proper disposition of drug evidence.

On July 5, the Interior Ministry, with EU financial support, held a conference over several days in Abomey to complete drawing up a blueprint for a new comprehensive national anti-drug policy (POLUDRO). The opening of the conference, attended by the U.S. ambassador, focused on the prevention and suppression of drug trafficking and on the treatment/rehabilitation of addicts. Adoption of a new anti-narcotics code is expected to result from this conference, but there had been no announcement of such, as of the end of 1999.

In 1999, Benin made no changes with regard to law enforcement agencies responsible for drug enforcement. Resources devoted to drug enforcement remain far below adequate levels. It appears that little or no effort is made to pursue major traffickers despite widespread acknowledgment of their activities. The few law enforcement resources that do exist are mostly devoted to arresting and prosecuting small-scale couriers and users. Such efforts are woefully inadequate. One example of a well-known drug trafficking suspect allowed to travel freely for a considerable time is businessman, Kashamu Burushi, better known by his street name, Kasmal. Eventually, in 1998, Kasmal was detained at London's Heathrow Airport with a large amount of hard currency in his possession. Following a standard name check, British customs authorities found that there was an outstanding U.S. warrant for his arrest on narcotics trafficking charges.

Seizure and Forfeiture of Drug-Related Assets. Benin's narcotics laws permit the seizure and forfeiture of the assets of narcotics traffickers and provide for significant prison terms and fines. The laws permit the seizure of assets used for the manufacture, transport, sale or safekeeping of illegal drugs; this includes all assets derived directly or indirectly from drug trafficking. As in many developing countries, the law itself is well drafted in Benin and quite modern in its approach to narcotics crime, the issue is that the law isn't well enforced.

Corruption. There has been an increased level of public discussion of corruption and several press reports have alleged government officials, especially in the state run cotton industry and at the port of Cotonou, embezzle official funds and are "on the take." Overall, little real progress has been made in addressing the entrenched and institutionalized corruption existing among career government bureaucrats. The heart of the problem seems to lie in the main theme of a recent transparency international (TI) sponsored conference in Cotonou, namely - the impunity of corruption. This state of affairs continues despite the appointment of a presidential task force on corruption at Cotonou and a very candid USAID-sponsored publication describing and condemning corrupt practices in Benin. Resistance to reform efforts persists. This is most notable among government agencies responsible for law enforcement and includes schemes on government contracts, embezzlement, etc.

Agreements and Treaties. Benin is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, as well as to the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, its 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. There is no bilateral extradition or mutual legal assistance treaty between the U.S. and Benin.

Cultivation/Production. To USG knowledge, the only significant drug cultivated in Benin is marijuana, and no figures are available regarding the amounts grown. As noted, Benin does not export marijuana, but rather it is illicitly grown for domestic use.

Drug Flow/Transit. Benin is said to be a transshipment point for cocaine, heroin and marijuana. It is believed that these drugs depart Benin primarily through the international airport in Cotonou.

Domestic Programs. There are no significant demand reduction programs in Benin.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. Goals/Objectives in Benin. The primary U.S. goal is to build on successful bilateral anti-narcotics cooperation efforts, as well as efforts in other areas, so as to aid in the combat against the transit of drugs to the U.S. or Europe.

Bilateral Cooperation. The U.S. and Benin signed a Letter of Agreement in 1995 under which the U.S. agreed to provide material assistance to the narcotics squad in the form of radios and testing kits. In 1998, the U.S. embassy provided 15 Motorola radios and close to a 1000 drug testing kits for cocaine, heroin, and marijuana to the Beninese National Police.

Road Ahead. The U.S. is considering training for local prosecutors and police in the use of Benin's new asset forfeiture legislation. In a country where law enforcement resources are so inadequate, this law could provide law enforcement personnel with additional resources and stronger incentives to pursue drug traffickers.


I. Summary

Botswana does not produce any of the harder drugs such as heroin, methamphetamine or precursor chemicals, and it is not a significant drug transit country. Botswana does cultivate marijuana but a vigorous eradication campaign keeps realized production down. In 1999 drug control officials seized cannabis transiting from South Africa, as well as small amounts of cocaine and heroin. Due to an increase in the number of drug-related arrests, drug control officials fear an increase of drug abuse in Botswana, especially with respect to cannabis because of its cheap street price. Those caught with drugs in Botswana can expect to face punishment including prison sentences.

II. Status of Country.

Botswana is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In 1998, the government established a national drug control coordination council, chaired by a senior official in the Office of the President. The Government of Botswana has tough legislation against drug production, trafficking, and money-laundering associated with the drug trade. Botswana's courts hand down stiff sentences for drug-related offences, such as mandatory sentences of 1-5 years for possession of under 60 grams of cannabis, and 5-10 years for more than 60 grams. The Botswana national police force participates enthusiastically in training opportunities provided by the U.S. and other donors. In 1999, two narcotics squad officers participated in a regional drug enforcement seminar in South Africa sponsored by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 1999

There has been a slight reduction in drug seizures transiting and entering the country. Police seized 1200 kilograms of cannabis during 1999, mostly produced in neighboring Zambia and Zimbabwe. In 1999, police seized four shipments of cocaine sent by mail from Peru and Brazil, which police presume were meant for transit to South Africa. The police also made their first-ever interception of heroin, seizing a one-kilogram shipment from Pakistan sent by mail. The Botswana Police report generally good cooperation on drug control with their regional partners, with the exception of Zambian officials. Other countries, such as South Africa, Swaziland, and Namibia, have cooperated with and invited Botswana drug control officials to participate in destroying seized drugs. The United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP) has provided drug detection dogs to Botswana for use in drug searches. There are no indications of senior government officials being involved in drug-related offences.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

A U.S. Inter-Agency Survey team has recommended Botswana as the site for a planned African International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA). Discussions with the Government of Botswana on arrangements to establish an African ILEA in Botswana should begin shortly.


I. Summary:

Cameroon is not a major producer of drugs. However, Cameroon remains a transit point for drug trafficking. There is no evidence that drugs trafficked through Cameroon have a significant impact on the U.S. Drug use among Cameroonians, especially youth, is on the rise. Most types of narcotics are available, but locally grown cannabis is the drug most widely consumed. Cameroon is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol. Except for a few drug seizures in 1998-99, including a 1998 seizure of 11 1/2 MT of cannabis, little has been done to combat drug trafficking or use in recent years.

II. Status of Country

Cameroon produces few illegal drugs, except marijuana, and is not known to be heavily involved in trafficking. The Government of Cameroon (GOC) reports that drug use among young adults is on the rise. Exact figures on the scale of drug abuse in Cameroon are not available. In 1999 there were no new government initiatives to address this problem. Cameroon is believed to be a relatively minor drug transit country, but it is difficult to assess if drug trafficking through Cameroon is increasing, because interdiction is sporadic and few records are kept. While select members of the customs service and police force are dedicated to combating drugs, the majority remains indifferent or enforces laws haphazardly. Even less clear are the types of drugs and quantities passing through Cameroon, but cannabis, heroin, and cocaine are suspected. Customs authorities insist that new efforts to establish a special customs/police taskforce and develop profiles of drug smugglers have made Cameroon much less attractive to smugglers. More likely the smugglers have simply changed their tactics.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 1999

The government of Cameroon initiated no new actions in 1999 to meet the goals and objectives of the 1988 UN Drug Convention. The National Committee for the Fight Against Drugs (CNLD), created in 1992 under the auspices of the Ministry of Health, was inactive. There were no specific legal or law enforcement measures taken to prevent and punish narcotics-related public corruption. Cameroon gives a low priority to counternarcotics law enforcement. Only limited resources and training are available to Customs and police officials. Counternarcotics law enforcement activities in 1999 were limited to minor drug seizures.

Customs officers at Douala International Airport on February 17, 1999 found a Nigerian national with 28 balloons of heroin (500 grams) concealed on his person. On February 24, Customs officers apprehended another Nigerian with 84 balloons containing a total of 1,500 grams of heroin. Both individuals arrived in Douala on a Kenya Airways flight from Nairobi. Both intended onward travel to Lagos, Nigeria. Customs officials also reported three additional drug seizures at Douala, two of unspecified amounts of cannabis and one of one kilogram of cocaine.

Cannabis is widely available in Cameroon; some of it grown domestically, more imported from Nigeria. According to the local press it is the drug most widely used among Cameroonians (next to alcohol). The average price of 2-3 grams of cannabis is 50 - 100 CFA (USD .08 - .16). The GOC has taken few national measures to combat this phenomenon. However, in 1999 the Gendarmerie in the Northwest Province conducted a limited campaign to destroy cannabis fields. They also seized 2600 kg of cannabis en route to other provinces.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives

The USG provides no counternarcotics assistance to Cameroon. A program initiated in 1991 under a U.S.-Cameroon Letter of Agreement was suspended in 1992 due to a lack of cooperation on the part of police and alleged human rights violations by security forces. The U.S. Embassy continues to receive requests from police and customs officials for training and material assistance.


I. Summary

The Republic of Cape Verde is not a narcotics producer, but may be on its way toward a role in the international transit of narcotics to developed country markets. Government leaders are outspoken about their concern that a currently small-scale domestic use problem could worsen, and are anxious to cooperate with others in order to keep drugs away from their national territory. In 1999, the USG agreed to assist the Government of Cape Verde (GOCV) by providing information about possible drug trafficking in Cape Verdean waters, and by providing drug testing kits. The test kits will enable police to identify narcotics at a potential crime scene, and to produce credible evidence for criminal cases against accused drug traffickers. The intelligence information should assist Cape Verde to make better use of its limited enforcement resources. Cape Verde is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Cape Verde does not produce illicit drugs. However, its geographic location, off the West Coast of Africa, and astride routes between South America and Europe, Asia and Europe, and to a lesser degree, Africa and North America makes Cape Verde a potential transshipment point. The country's wholly inadequate defense against sea borne trafficking is its modest coast guard. This is a small, under-funded, but professional branch of the military which lacks sufficient resources to maintain credible vigilance over Cape Verde's territorial sea and air space. As a result, this potential transshipment point is open to nearly uncontrolled use by those shipping drugs. There are unconfirmed reports of unidentified ships from Brazil or aircraft from abroad dropping cargo in Cape Verdean waters, but authorities have been unable to apprehend any violators, if, indeed, such transactions have actually taken place.

The GOCV has ambitious plans to host offshore banking along the lines of arrangements in the Canary Islands. Decision makers believe that with the proper rules in place, offshore banking can be successfully regulated.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 1999

The GOCV's limited sea borne forces patrol the islands' large territorial waters as best they can given their limited resources. The GOCV has held a round table with potential donors (including the USG) to solicit assistance in its national anti-narcotics program. While law enforcement and coast guard forces are already engaged in an effort to counter narcotics trafficking through, and sales of narcotics in Cape Verde, the government lacks adequate resources to mount an effort proportionate to the threat. Cape Verdean police units willingly cooperate with international law enforcement authorities, as opportunities arise for such cooperation.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The USG and the GOCV have signed a letter of agreement to provide the Ministry of Justice with $20,000 worth of narcotics identification test kits. The Ministry will use these kits to test suspect substances to determine whether they are controlled or banned by national narcotics laws. Such determinations will be important scientific evidence in criminal trials. This letter of agreement was signed in September 1999.

The Road Ahead. Cape Verde and the USG are considering methods for using Cape Verde's limited coast guard resources more efficiently to combat narcotics transshipment. Among the options under discussion are further training opportunities for Cape Verdean seamen and officers, and possible technical assistance to vector coast guard vessels directly to suspect ships.


Comoros is neither a major producer, nor a significant consumer of narcotics. Nevertheless, Comoros officials expressed concern in 1999 over a perceived increase in domestic consumption of cannabis and Mandrax. Comoros is a transshipment route to South Africa and Europe for cannabis and cocaine from Madagascar and heroin from Southwest Asia. There is no evidence of transshipment to the U.S. The amount of trafficking is unknown, but political instability, exacerbated by a military coup in April, the ongoing secession of Anjouan Island, and weak law enforcement make this three-island nation a vulnerable target for drug traffickers. The Comoran police have a small anti-narcotics unit, which has received assistance and training in the past from France. Comoros is not a party to any of the UN drug conventions. Money laundering is not criminalized, but given the small size of the financial sector (one bank), it is not thought to be a major problem.


I. Summary

Cote d'Ivoire continues to be a transit point for narcotics from Asia and Latin America bound for Europe and, to a lesser extent, North America, but there is no evidence of significant impact on the U.S. Domestic drug production remains minimal and limited to cannabis, but consumption of hard drugs is reportedly increasing. Counternarcotics activities rose during 1999 in government priority, and a national strategic counternarcotics plan was nearing completion. In 1999, European donors and the U.S. continued to coordinate efforts toward meeting law enforcement and public health drug treatment training needs. Cote d'Ivoire is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status Of Country

Abidjan is a major West African financial center and a regional hub for international airline travel and ocean freight. Following USG civil aviation visits under the "safe skies" program, security at Abidjan's airport has been tightened somewhat. Nevertheless, drugs and money continue to pass through Ivoirian ports and across porous borders, along with other smuggled goods, including light arms and stolen vehicles. Police seizures of narcotics during 1999 were usually small and often incidental to arrests of petty crime suspects. Limited educational and economic opportunities fuel a slowly growing domestic trade in heroin and cocaine.

III. Country Action Against Drugs in 1999

Policy Initiatives. Cote d'Ivoire continued to take steps toward meeting the objectives of the 1988 UN Drug Convention. During 1999, a new Secretary General of the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Narcotics Affairs improved coordination between government agencies. The government also sponsored a regional meeting of technical experts to move toward cooperation in fighting cross-border crime.

Accomplishments. Following closure of the Abidjan UNDCP project office in December 1998, Cote d'Ivoire cooperated with the U.S. Government and the European Union's (EU's) African anti-drug program to identify training needs for drug abuse prevention, law enforcement, and addict treatment and rehabilitation. Classes have been offered at the recently refurbished regional narcotics training center in Grand Bassam. U.S. assistance has been suspended in the wake of a military coup.

Law Enforcement Efforts. There were no significant drug-related seizures, arrests, or prosecutions during 1999. Law enforcement continued to rely on roadside document checks and tips to arrest small dealers and users. No significant action was taken against major traffickers. Counternarcotics law enforcement remained a low priority for government and police, and enforcement efforts continued to be hampered by official collusion and bribery.

Corruption. Following a corruption scandal unrelated to narcotics, three ministers were dismissed, but there were no significant arrests or prosecutions for drug related corruption in 1999.

Agreements and Treaties. The government of Cote d'Ivoire is party to the 1961 UN Single Convention, and its 1972 Protocol, the 1972 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 UN Drug Convention. In 1992, 1993, and 1994, the governments of the United States and of Cote d'Ivoire signed Letters of Agreement for the establishment of an Ivoirian capability to suppress the cultivation, processing, trafficking, consumption, and export of illegal narcotics, but apart from training, no assistance has been extended recently. The government is a party to several regional counternarcotics cooperation agreements.

Cultivation/Production. Cannabis is grown in the more remote parts of the southern half of the country, in limited quantities and primarily for local consumption. Crops are frequently hidden among cocoa plantings while maturing and then transported overland, concealed in shipments of coffee or cocoa to Abidjan and other distribution centers. The national police continued to destroy any illicit planting they found, but they did not keep records of crop size and yield. Herbicides are not in general use against drug-related crops.

Drug Flow/Transit. Despite some recent effort to tighten passenger-related security, Abidjan's Houphouet-Boigny Airport remains a transit point for flows of cocaine and heroin to destinations in Europe and beyond. In addition, seaports in Abidjan and San Pedro reportedly serve as transit points as well. Drugs and other goods cross borders by boat and vehicle, tolerated or abetted by easily bribed frontier authorities. There are no reliable statistics on movement of narcotics.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). Public awareness of social effects of drug abuse remains low. Several government agencies participated in workshops sponsored by the EU's African anti-drug program to identify training priorities. The resulting broad training effort focused on drug awareness and demand reduction as well as on law enforcement, treatment, and reinsertion of former addicts into productive society.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. Policy Initiatives. U.S. policy goals remained focused on reducing use of Cote d'Ivoire as a transit point for narcotics trafficking.

Bilateral Cooperation. U.S. Government assistance in 1999 emphasized law enforcement training at all levels. Cote d'Ivoire had several law enforcement courses scheduled for the current year, but the current political situation raises questions as to whether they can go forward.

Road Ahead. The principal U.S. counternarcotics interest in Cote d'Ivoire remains preventing Nigerian drug cartels from using the West African "back door" to Europe and the U.S. U.S. training for police, Gendarmerie, Customs, and judicial authorities remains the principal avenue for broader U.S.-Ivoirian engagement in counternarcotics matters.


I. Summary

Egypt is not a major producer, supplier, or consumer of narcotics or precursor chemicals, nor does it have a serious problem with money laundering. It does remain a transit point for heroin and cannabis, though the level of traffic appears to have diminished in 1999. The Anti-Narcotics General Administration (ANGA) is the lead agency for fighting narcotics trafficking in Egypt. Egypt is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Egypt is not a significant producer or consumer of narcotics or precursor chemicals, though opium and cannabis are grown in parts of Egypt. Egypt is also not a center for money laundering. It continues to be a transshipment point for narcotics going to Western Europe and North America, though this role appears to have diminished somewhat in 1999, and there is no evidence that such drugs are reaching the U.S. in significant quantities. The country's long uninhabited borders and the large volume of traffic through the Suez Canal facilitate transshipment of Asian heroin and opium. Continued use of Cairo International Airport also remains of concern. Cannabis and stimulants are the most commonly abused drugs in Egypt.

ANGA has offices at Cairo Airport and along the Canal, and retains overall jurisdiction for investigating all drug related crimes. The U.S. DEA country office assists ANGA in some of its smuggling interdiction efforts at the Canal and airports through the provision of equipment and training.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 1999

Policy Initiatives. In 1994 the Government of Egypt (GOE) formally adopted a comprehensive drug control strategy which it continues to develop. Under this plan and using a "task force" system, the Egyptian coast guard, customs service, police forces, selected military units, and ANGA cooperate to interdict narcotics shipments. At the same time, the ministries of health and education and several religious organizations run drug awareness programs designed to curb demand. These efforts are hindered by a shortage of equipment and funding. A bill specifically criminalizing money laundering is under discussion in parliament.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Counter-terrorism continues to dominate Egyptian law enforcement, though ANGA is effective in its program of arresting low-level drug traffickers and users, interdicting shipments and eradicating illicit crops. As drug abuse is relatively rare in Egypt, the smaller scale of narcotics activities means that large seizures and arrests are infrequent. ANGA also runs a drug awareness campaign and is pursuing a program of crop substitution in the Sinai; this latter program has so far been largely unsuccessful.

ANGA's fulltime eradication unit in the Sinai continues to run almost daily successful eradication operations against cannabis and opium production. In a recent joint operation with ANGA and British officials, U.S. law enforcement was able to seize $2 million from a fugitive Egyptian drug trafficker. The U.S. then shared approximately 1/2 of this sum with the GOE pursuant to a case-specific sharing agreement, in recognition of the contribution to the operation made by Egyptian authorities. Working unilaterally, ANGA continues to seize assets from narcotics traffickers, and in 1999 confiscated 3.5 million Egyptian pounds. Another 15 million Egyptian pounds have been seized pending the outcome of court cases.

Corruption. Narcotics-related corruption seems limited, and restricted to low-level officials. Nonetheless, the Egyptian government has strict laws with stringent penalties for government officials convicted of involvement in narcotics trafficking or related corruption.

Agreements and Treaties. Egypt and the U.S. have had an extradition treaty in place since the late 1800s. Egypt is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, as well as to the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the 1972 Protocol thereto. A mutual legal assistance treaty between the U.S. and Egypt is awaiting ratification. [The U.S. And Egypt have also signed two case-specific memoranda of understanding regarding the sharing of assets seized in joint operations. These are one-time agreements.]

Cultivation and Production. Opium poppy is grown in the southern Sinai part of the year, and cannabis is grown year round in the northern and southern Sinai and in parts of Upper Egypt. The Egyptians estimate crop size, as the irregular shapes of most plots make precise measurement difficult. According to the United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP), opium production in Egypt is declining while cannabis production is increasing. ANGA uses aerial surveillance and confidential informants to identify illicit crops, and then stages daylight eradication raids. ANGA is seeking to develop a herbicide eradication strategy, but currently relies on cutting and burning. Some methamphetamine has been reported in Egypt, and a handful of labs are supposed to operate clandestinely. Though opium is grown, no heroin processing labs have been discovered in Egypt in the last 10 years.

Drug Flow and Transit. The flow of drugs through Egypt has decreased recently. ANGA speculates that this is due both to increased Egyptian border surveillance and interdiction activity as well as to the opening of alternate smuggling routes from South Asia through the countries of the former Soviet Union. Nonetheless, ANGA continues to intercept shipments of hashish and heroin heading to Western Europe and North America from such producers as Lebanon, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). The Ministries of Health and the Interior sponsor a national drug campaign and various public awareness campaigns, which target school-aged children through the mass media. The GOE, with support from DEA Cairo, also runs a national drug awareness campaign. Drug treatment for the small population of drug abusers is largely carried out by private doctors.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. policy in Egypt is to continue to work with the GOE to further reduce transshipment through Egypt and to decrease cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis. Specifically, U.S. policy has the following objectives:

Increasing training;
Targeting eradication efforts;
Improving interdiction; and
Improving intelligence collection and analysis.

The Road Ahead. In FY2000, the U.S. Government will provide training to the GOE in police science, anticorruption and border control operations. The DEA country office will continue to work closely with ANGA to improve interdiction and eradication methods, as well as to develop additional sources of information on trafficking and cultivation.


I. Summary

Ethiopia is not an important country with respect to money laundering, precursor chemical production or the production of narcotic drugs, although the traditional stimulant Khat continues to be widely produced and exported throughout the region. Ethiopia is strategically located along a major narcotics transit route between Southwest Asian drug producing regions and markets in Europe and West Africa. Ethiopia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol. The Ethiopian Counternarcotics Unit (ECNU) maintains an interdiction team at Bole International Airport, which is where its two drug-sniffer dogs are primarily employed. The interdiction unit routinely screens passengers, luggage, and cargo on flights arriving from "high risk" origins, i.e. Bangkok, New Delhi, Mumbai (Bombay), and Islamabad.

II. Status of Country

Ethiopia is not, nor is it likely to become, significant in terms of the production of narcotic drugs, money laundering, or the production of precursor chemicals. Ethiopia continues to be, however, a major producer and exporter of Khat. Cannabis is being produced in small amounts for export primarily to neighboring countries.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 1999

Ethiopia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Ethiopia did not pass any new counternarcotics legislation in 1999. During 1999, the ECNU conducted a training course in basic narcotics detection and investigative techniques. for regional police officers. These officers, while still responsive to their respective regional police headquarters, will also be expected to coordinate their counternarcotics activities with the ECNU. The use of heroin and other hard drugs remains quite low, due primarily to the high street price and limited availability. The availability and consumption of these hard drugs is caused by the "spillover" effect from the transiting of drug couriers through the airport. Bole is a major air hub for flight connections between Asia and Africa, and much of the heroin entering and/or transiting Ethiopia comes from Asia. Many of the flights require up to a two-day layover in Addis Ababa which encourages the introduction of these drugs into the local populace.

Law Enforcement. The ECNU has been severely hampered due to a lack of leadership at the federal level, and a vacuum created by the transfer of the former commissioner and deputy commissioner to other duties. As of the end of 1999, these positions had not been filled. ECNU suffers from managerial/leadership ineptness. The ECNU commander lacks a commitment to attacking the international drug problem; the focus is almost solely on domestic issues. The interdiction team at Bole International Airport is largely ineffective, although the number of officers assigned has increased. Only two of the officers assigned to the interdiction team have had any real training. The other officers have severely limited enforcement experience, and do not speak any foreign languages and are, thus, limited in their ability to interdict foreign drug couriers or "mules". . The interdiction unit is, however, capable of identifying male Nigerian/Tanzanian drug couriers, who traditionally swallow drugs, encased in protective bags for concealment. Any other interdiction is dependent on luck.

Policy Initiatives. The Ministry of Justice is in the process of updating the penal code. Currently the maximum sentence for trafficking is two to three years, which does not serve as an effective deterrent to using Ethiopia as a transit country. Additionally, Ethiopia lacks a central coordinating body to systematically coordinate anti-drug activities of the ministries of education, health, and justice.

Senior Ethiopian government officials have admitted that attention to counternarcotics issues has waned, primarily due to the ongoing Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict. These senior officials have promised to re-focus attention on the drug problem and to re-commit Ethiopia to countering narcotics traffickers.

Money laundering is not considered a problem. There were no asset seizures or extraditions, and mutual legal assistance was of little significance in 1999. The United States has no extradition or mutual legal assistance treaty with Ethiopia.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives

There were no major policy initiatives undertaken in 1999.

The USG emphasis has remained on improving law enforcement, specifically the ECNU. Ethiopia has limited resources and must rely on assistance from external sources. Overall, the ECNU needs more training, better facilities, and improved access to resources if it is to prove effective in meeting the growing challenge.


I. Summary

Ghana takes an active stance against drug abuse and illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Ghana has active enforcement, treatment and rehabilitation programs. Ghana is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Ghana is increasingly a transit point for illegal drugs, particularly cocaine and heroin from South America, and Southeast and Southwest Asia. Most are headed for Europe, but some go to South Africa and a small amount to North America. Trafficking occurs at Accra's Kotoka International Airport as well as the ports of Tema and Sekondi. Overland trafficking occurs at the land borders with Togo (Aflao) and Cote d'Ivoire (Elubo). As Nigeria improves its interdiction efforts, Nigerian traffickers are strengthening their presence in Ghana. The trafficking problem has fueled an increase in domestic consumption. Cannabis use is a problem in Ghana, although the extent of local cultivation is uncertain because of its clandestine nature. Individuals cultivate it in plots averaging about half an acre in size or by inter-cropping it in vegetable and staple food fields. Money laundering occurs, but this is not a major problem. Precursor chemicals are also not a major problem.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 1999

Policy Initiatives. The Narcotics Control Board (NCB) coordinates the efforts and cooperates with all organizations involved in counternarcotics activities. The NCB's 1999 activities encompassed numerous areas of counternarcotics, including enforcement and control, education, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and social re-integration.

In 1999 the NCB completed its counternarcotics master plan, renamed "The National Plan of Action 1999-2003." Financial and technical support was provided by the European Commission through its African Anti-Drug Program (AADP) for West Africa. The policy initiatives of the Board are:

to motivate all organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, to assist in the suppression of illicit drug supplies being transported into the country, the reduction of drug demand and the fight against drug abuse and illicit trafficking;

to coordinate the efforts of all "stake-holding" organizations towards a common goal; and

to cooperate with the international community in the fight against the global drug scourge.

In 1999 the NCB submitted proposals to the Ghanaian government to amend the 1990 narcotics law. The following proposals were still under review in 1999:

A) amending penalties for drug offenses from a minimum of 10 years imprisonment to imprisonment of a term of not less than five years and, in addition, a fine of not less than 20,000,000 Cedis (approximately U.S. $ 6,400) or a further term of not less than 5 years.

B) raising the fine for certain narcotics-related violations from 20,000 Cedis in section 7 (2) to 1,000,000 Cedis (U.S. $ 320) because of depreciation of the Cedi.

C) amending section 4 of PNDC law 236 to vest in the Board any property forfeited under the law for the Board to manage and administer instead of the present situation where such fees, fines and other monies paid as fines go to the government's general fund.

D) defining the concept of possession/control to include the person who employed a carrier "mule", agent, or servant.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The police Criminal Investigative Division's (CID) narcotics unit based at CID headquarters in Accra undertakes interdiction exercises, raids, arrests, seizures, and prosecutions alone or in joint operations with officials of the NCB. NCB narcotics squads are locate at known drug-prone areas - Kumasi (Ashanti region), Koforidua (eastern region) Ho (Volta region) and Tema (greater Accra region)- which conduct similar operations. The Customs Excise and Preventive Service (CEPS) headquarters also has a counternarcotics unit, as well as anti-drug squads at some of Ghana's borders (at Aflao, on the border with Togo, and at Elubo, on the border with Cote d'Ivoire) and at Kotoka International Airport in Accra.

Arrest and seizure statistics show a decrease in arrests, but more seizures in cocaine-related offenses. The slight decrease in arrest is perhaps due to the deterrent effect of increased law enforcement vigilance at the borders. One of the arrests took place in Papua, New Guinea and involved a single trafficker trying to smuggle a large amount of cocaine (7 kg.) A gram of cocaine, depending on its purity, sells at Cedis 60,000 (approx. U.S. $ 18). Heavily diluted cocaine sells at Cedis 40,000 per gram (approx. U.S. $ 12).

Figures show a decrease in heroin-related arrests and seizures, again, perhaps due to the deterrent effect of increased law enforcement vigilance at the borders. A gram of heroin, depending on its purity, sells at Cedis 40,000 - 45,000 (approx. U.S. $ 12 - 14). Heavily diluted heroin sells at Cedis 25,000 - 30,000 per gram (approx. U.S. $ 8 - 9).

There was an increase in cannabis-related arrests and seizures in 1999 but a significant decrease in quantities seized. The increased arrests may be due to greater vigilance. The NCB attributes the decrease in quantity seized to the deterrent effect of improved enforcement and drug prevention education which reduces demand for cannabis. Traffickers may also be carrying smaller quantities.

Drug dealers, using matchsticks as measures, retail cocaine or heroin at prices between Cedis 1000 and 2000 (approx. U.S. $ .30 - .60), depending on purity. The matchstick is dipped in the cocaine or heroin powder and what collects on the head of the match is sold. A drug addict might need eight to twelve of these matchsticks per day.

The police narcotics unit has worked closely with the Accra INS sub-office. INS Accra continually receives information from sources in Ghana and the U.S. who have identified drug activities between the two countries. INS shares this information with the Ghanaian police, who corroborate the information and ultimately work the case. This free exchange of information has resulted in the arrest of several drug dealers who have ultimately been convicted in Ghanaian court.

In addition, several DHL packages containing narcotics, which were destined for Ghana, have been intercepted in the U.S. due to cooperation between Ghanaian officials and the DEA. DHL Ghana has also cooperated with NCB to intercept narcotics packages destined for London.

Corruption. In 1999, there were no narcotics-related public corruption cases reported. There were two such cases from 1998, involving the Bureau Of National Intelligence and the Customs Service; these are still under investigation.

Agreements and Treaties. U.S.-Ghana extradition relations are governed by the 1931 U.S.-UK Extradition Treaty, to which Ghana acceded. Ghana has extradited three narcotics offenders to the U.S. under this treaty (1 in 1992 and 2 in 1994). Additionally, Ghana is a party to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Protocol Agreement, which includes an extradition provision. Ghana is also a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol.

Cultivation and Production. A combined team of the NCB's rapid deployment unit and the police narcotics unit continued to investigate the production and distribution of narcotics and to destroy cultivated cannabis farms and plants in 1999.

Marijuana or cannabis (also known as "wee" or Indian hemp) grows in Ghana, so it is easily available and widely abused. The cannabis comes from the rural areas, where it is cultivated illicitly, to the urban areas, where there is a ready market for it. Some cannabis is trafficked to neighboring and European countries. A kilo sells between Cedis 6000 and 7000 (approx. U.S. $ 2). A wrap or joint sells at Cedis 3000 (approx. U.S. $ 1).

Drug Flow/Transit. Cocaine and heroin are the main drugs that transit Ghana. According to DEA, there has been a notable increase in the number of intercepted packages of narcotics destined for Accra. Narcotics entering Ghana are sometimes repackaged for shipment to the United States and Europe through various concealment methods, such as: hidden in false compartments in briefcases, bags, cartons; deposited into unaccompanied baggage; hidden in exported foodstuffs (yams, pineapples, palm oil, etc.); or placed in condoms or cellophane material, which is then swallowed by individuals. There is no evidence that drugs transiting Ghana have a significant effect on the U.S.

Money Laundering. Proceeds from illegal trade in diamonds, gold and narcotics are suspected to be laundered through the non-bank financial systems, such as the foreign exchange bureaus. Additionally, there are allegations that some funds are laundered through donations to religious institutions.

Seizures. Approximately U.S. $880,000 in assets of a drug baron wanted in the UK were forfeited to the state. The NCB received 20 percent of the forfeited assets. There are three cases pending. One case was in forfeiture proceedings at the end of 1999, with assets of U.S. $ 1.19 million. In the other two cases, seizure notices were filed against the assets of an individual jailed in the U.S. for drug trafficking in 1996 and a fugitive drug dealer resident in Accra.

Precursor Chemical Control. The Ghana Food and Drugs Board and the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency control precursor chemicals by issuing licenses for chemicals and monitoring their distribution and use. The NCB monitors the licenses and is in liaison with international exporting agencies who require records on these chemicals.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). The NCB's demand reduction efforts are at the grassroots levels in the rural areas. The NCB works with the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development to encourage members of Ghana's 110 district assemblies to include narcotics prevention education in their education programs. In addition, the NCB works with the ministries of health and education through the ministries' representatives on the Board. Drug prevention education programs, coordinated through the NCB, are provided for the general public as well as for the ministries themselves.

The NCB has also received cooperation from Ghanaian newspapers in publishing the mug shots of drug offenders in the papers. The NCB hopes that this will increase awareness of the repercussions of drug activities.

With school authorities, the NCB has helped establish drug-free clubs in all secondary schools to apply peer pressure in drug prevention education. The NCB prepared a booklet called "Guidelines for the Formation of Drug-Free Clubs in Schools" for use nationwide, and provides personnel to deliver talks or lectures at schools. In 1999, the Ministry of Education, in cooperation with the NCB, placed drug prevention education in the curriculum of all secondary schools and teacher training colleges.

In October 1999, the NCB and the AADP broadcast a quiz on drug prevention information over Ghana radio. Prizes were given to schools and individuals who participated. In 1998, with the Ministry of Education, the NCB designated the School Health Program (SHEP) of the Ghana education service as the drug unit to handle all drug prevention education in all Ghanaian schools. In 1999, the Ghana education service formed a committee, whose membership is drawn from SHEP, the guidance and counseling units of the schools, and the welfare unit. This committee will handle all matters relating to drug prevention education in Ghana. Treatment programs have lagged behind preventive education and enforcement due to lack of funding. Three non-governmental organizations form the nucleus of treatment and rehabilitation facilities in Ghana. These are: The Cheshire Home (Kumasi), the Abba Jenkins Home (East Legon), and the Remar Association (Accra).

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. Goals and Objectives. To strengthen Ghanaian law enforcement capacity; to strengthen the Ghanaian Government's ability to identify and investigate narcotics-related crime; and to reduce Ghana's role as a transit point for narcotics.

Road Ahead. The USG wants to work with the government of Ghana to improve its narcotics interdiction and investigative capabilities.


I. Summary

Demand for drugs in Israel is growing, use is becoming more accepted, and users begin at increasingly younger ages. Drug prices have remained stable or decreased, suggesting that significant supplies of illicit drugs are available to users. Drug users generally fall into one of two groups: one where use of amphetamines dominate, and a second where use of cannabis dominates. Among amphetamine abusers, LSD is also abused and, to a much lesser extent, cocaine. For those abusers where cannabis is the primary drug of abuse, it seems that heroin is frequently a secondary drug of abuse. This is particularly so for the hard core user.

Israel's Anti-drug Authority (ADA) has made the most of a tight anti-narcotics budget, but faces the prospect of future budget cuts. Cooperative efforts with Egypt, Jordan and the Palestinians remain important for the interdiction of some drugs coming into Israel and cordial relations exist between counterparts. However, there is little to no operational assistance, and therefore no benefit yet from the improving relationship for improved narcotics interdiction. Money laundering legislation is pending in the Knesset. After it becomes law, Israel hopes to become a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status Of Country

Israel is neither a major transshipment point nor a major producer of drugs or precursor chemicals. Most law enforcement officials believe that a significant amount of money is laundered through Israel, because money laundering is not a crime. There is increased attention to the problem of organized criminal activity in Israel.

III: Country Actions Against Drugs in 1999

Policy Initiatives. While the government of Israel has a strong anti-drug policy, drug interdiction and prevention efforts are limited due to budgetary constraints. Although the 1999 budget for the ADA was roughly similar to the 1998 budget of $8 million, the FY2000 ADA budget may be cut by another five to ten percent, which is expected to reduce the ADA's capacity to fight drug abuse.

In April 1999, money laundering legislation passed the first of the three necessary readings in the Knesset. Israeli officials expect the bill to become law by June 2000. Stricter law enforcement will be possible immediately after promulgation of the law, although the collection database required by the law is not expected to be completed for another three years. The Justice Ministry has already begun workshops for banking and law enforcement authorities that explain the new legislation.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Israel works closely with the U.S. FBI, U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, and U.S. Customs officials, and has eight police officers and four customs attaches stationed around the world. Israeli officials enjoy good relations with their Palestinian, Egyptian and Jordanian counterparts, but offer little substantive operational assistance to any of them. Interdiction efforts focus on the transit of cannabis, and to a lesser extent, heroin, over Israel's physical borders with Lebanon, Jordan and Egypt and on the growing use of express mail to move amphetamines, LSD, and other drugs. Sniffer dogs have been an asset in drug interdiction, but are unable to detect new synthetic drugs, e.g., ecstasy (MDMA) and LSD.

The largest drug seizures in 1999 were: 1175 kg of cannabis; 163,760 ecstasy tablets; 200 LSD sheets; and 800 grams of cocaine. No labs were uncovered.

Corruption. Israel has had no documented cases of government narcotics corruption.

Agreements and Treaties. In 1991 the U.S. and Israel signed a memorandum of understanding calling for bilateral cooperation to combat illicit narcotics trafficking and abuse. Israel and the U.S. signed a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty in 1998 which entered into force in 1999. Israel has acceded to the European Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance in criminal matters. Israel is a party to the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1961 Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol. Israel is one of 36 parties to the European Treaty on Extradition and has separate extradition treaties with five other countries, including the U.S. For many years, Israeli law precluded the extradition of Israeli nationals under any circumstances. A 1999 law allows Israel to extradite its citizens for trial abroad, so long as those who reside in Israel are permitted to return to serve their sentences. Israel is a party to a number of other bi- and multi-lateral agreements that allow for extradition and asset seizure. The USG concluded a Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement (CMAA) with the Government of Israel in 1997.

Cultivation/Production. Israel is not a cultivator or producer of significant quantities of illicit drugs. Indeed, drug cultivation in Israel doesn't even meet Israel's own illicit demand.

Drug Flow/Transit. Israel is not a significant transit country for narcotics and no narcotics have been seized exiting the country. Israeli authorities believe the majority of cannabis and heroin consumed in Israel originates in Turkey, Egypt, and elsewhere and enters Israel across her borders with Lebanon, Jordan, and Egypt. The relatively high price and quality of narcotics available in Israel suggest that Israel is a more profitable market for illicit drugs. Amphetamines and other narcotics which enter Israel by express parcel carriers or mail often originate in Europe. Other drugs come to Israel from the U.S. and South America.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). ADA initiatives are geared to 17 to 25 year-olds in universities, the Israeli Defense Forces, minority communities, and affluent youths who are the primary drug users. The ADA estimates one in five university students are drug users and five percent of this group use hard drugs. At one university, drug use is estimated to be as high as 33 percent. Among recent immigrants, Russian and Ethiopian youths have significantly higher drug use, while the ADA reports drug use in the Israeli-Arab community is three times that of the rest of the country.

Israel has been concerned about the increasingly young age at which drug use begins. A 1998 ADA study showed that a significant number of young people began experimenting with drugs at age 14-16. The next year, a similar study showed that a higher percentage of young people began experimenting with drugs at ages 12-14. Another ADA study indicates that the percentage of Israelis who find recreational drug use culturally acceptable rose from 10 percent to 20-25 percent in the last four years.

Future initiatives will be aimed at emphasizing the danger of amphetamines, particularly ecstasy, which the ADA says drug users perceive as a "harmless, fun drug." Use of ecstasy has increased more than ten fold over the past three years.

IV: U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. U.S.-Israel cooperation aims to assist Israel in building a self-sustaining, professional drug interdiction force, assist in the development of effective anti-drug legislation, and to help foster regional cooperation with Israel's neighbors on anti-drug issues.

Bilateral Cooperation. Israeli anti-drug officials characterize relations with U.S. counterparts as excellent. The Israeli National Police work cases with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency office in Cyprus, while the Israeli Customs National Drug Enforcement Section works closely with the U.S. Customs Service in Rome. Israel makes excellent use of U.S.-trained drug sniffer dogs at points of entry to detect narcotics. In addition, the United States offered several workshops over the past year dealing with drug abuse.

Road Ahead. Maintaining the gains of prior bilateral cooperation and building substantive regional relationships are key goals for Israel's Anti-Drug Authority. Given tight government budgets, maintenance of equipment and training for personnel and dogs remain difficult for Israel. Interdiction of drugs across Israel's border is a constant challenge. Money laundering legislation, when enacted, will open up new possibilities for U.S. agencies to engage in training and case sharing.


I. Summary

Jordan's domestic drug abuse problem remains small, due largely to the active enforcement of existing laws, and the cultural and religious norms which help limit the use of illegal drugs. Jordan remains, however, a transit country due to its pivotal location between drug producing countries to the north, and drug consuming countries to the south and west. Cooperation between neighboring countries, particularly Lebanon and Syria is ongoing and robust. Cooperation with Israel intensified with movement in the Middle East peace process, but law enforcement officials hope for a more comprehensive and cooperative relationship. Seizures of hashish, once the most prevalent drug seized, declined due largely to eradication efforts and tough enforcement from Lebanon, the purported country of origin. Jordanian officials recently announced a three-year national strategy to combat drugs of abuse. Jordan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and looks forward to increased support from the European Union and the United States for its anti-drug efforts.

II. Status of Country

There are no obvious indicators to suggest Jordan will move from a narcotics transit country to a narcotics producing country in the foreseeable future. Low seizure statistics and minimal reported drug use seem to support this assessment.

As in previous years, Jordan still remains a country without a money laundering law. Law enforcement sources fear the lack of such a law will ultimately open the borders to more aggressive trafficking with potential for money laundering. Legislative sources report no recognizable efforts to obtain such a law in the immediate future.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 1999

Policy Initiatives. In December of 1999, Jordanian officials announced a government-wide project entitled "The National Plan To Combat Drugs And Psychotropic Substances". The project is set to run from 1999 through 2001 with an estimated budget of $22.4 million. The project is being implemented by a number of ministries including the Ministries of Interior, Health, Education, Youth, Social Development, Information, Finance, and Justice, and the Public Security Directorate. The plan encompasses three main objectives: prevention, enforcement, and treatment.

Law Enforcement Efforts. As a member of Jordan's Ministry of Interior, Jordan's Public Security Directorate maintains an active anti-narcotics and counterfeiting bureau. In an effort to enhance enforcement, this bureau added an additional 15 officers in 1999. The bureau also sought and received training from France and Italy during the reporting period. Italian authorities hosted a training session on organized crime, narcotics smuggling, and money laundering. France trained Jordanian enforcement officers during an exercise where members of the bureau worked and trained alongside French narcotic officers. Jordan continues to seek training assistance from other countries.

Law enforcement and drug policy officials report a decrease in the amount of hashish seized in Jordan for 1999. Officials attribute this success to the tough enforcement by the public security directorate's anti-narcotics bureau. Members of this bureau cite specific steps taken by Lebanon, the purported source country, to eradicate hashish. Further, bureau members report a vigorous, cooperative, and ongoing drug enforcement effort with Lebanon, Syria and Saudi Arabia.

While hashish seizures have decreased in 1999, statistics reveal seizures of opium have increased. Enforcement officials attribute this increase to the flow of drugs from Turkey, making their way to and through Jordan. These same Jordanian officials hope to further enhance the already existing anti-narcotics agreement with Turkish enforcement officials and improve efforts to combat this increase.

Corruption. Jordanian officials report no narcotic-related corruption or investigations during 1999. There is no evidence to suggest that senior level officials are involved in narcotics trafficking.

Agreements and Treaties. Jordan remains committed to existing bilateral agreements providing for some counternarcotics cooperation with Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Egypt, Pakistan, and Hungary. Although a 1995 bilateral extradition treaty is in force between Jordan and the U.S., Jordan has failed to honor any U.S. extradition requests since a 1997 Court of Cassation ruling that the treaty had not been approved properly by the Jordanian Parliament. The United States has repeatedly urged the GOJ to rectify any impediments to implementation of the treaty. Jordan is a party to the World Customs Organization's International Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance for the Prevention, Investigation, and Repression of Customs Offenses (Nairobi Convention), Annex X on Assistance in Narcotics Cases.

Cultivation or Production. Existing laws prohibit the cultivation or production of narcotics in Jordan. These laws have been effectively enforced.

Drug Flow or Transit. Jordan has been in the past, and remains today, a transit country for illicit drugs. Jordan's most challenging burden in eliminating trafficking remains the long, open, and often desolate borders with neighboring countries to the north. While law enforcement sources substantiate robust and effective enforcement efforts with Syria and Lebanon, the vast array of nomadic tribes associated with trafficking often elude even the most sophisticated efforts of interdiction. None of the drugs that transit Jordan are believed to be destined for the United States.

Seizure statistics for 1999 suggest a reduction in the amount of hashish that transits Jordan. Heroin seizures indicate no significant increase, but opium seizures have increased as noted above. Transit problems to Israel were recently highlighted by an 8 kg seizure of heroin by the anti-narcotics bureau. According to enforcement officials, family members from Jordan attempted to smuggle the heroin through Jordan and over the western border to family members in the West Bank.

Domestic Programs And Demand Reduction. The Ministries of Interior and Health offer treatment and rehabilitation as an option to incarceration. Enforcement officials and prosecutors work side-by-side to identify potential candidates for treatment.

Officers of the Ministry of Education and Health make presentations to school age youths, conduct awareness briefings, and produce lecture materials on prevention, awareness, and addiction. In 1999, the Ministry of Health and Social Development officials opened a treatment facility in Jabal Weibdeh, a suburb of Amman, and expect the number of treatment beds to rise in the coming years. As always, the cultural and religious norms cannot be ruled out as a factor in the help to control drug use. The Ministry of Moslem affairs and Holy Places manages a program of religious speeches, lessons, and lectures on awareness of drugs and their effects.

IV. U.S. Government Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. In keeping with the past goals of creating an effective Jordanian interdiction force, the U.S. State Department offered a course on rural border operations and interdiction. In June and July of 1999, the Department's anti-terrorism assistance program hosted 24 public security directorate members in an effort to teach principles of conducting effective border patrol operations. All sides expect that lessons learned during this type of training will be applied in the border areas where narcotics smuggling takes place, and help deter and eradicate the flow of drugs through Jordan.

Bilateral cooperation. Jordan's anti-narcotics bureau has a close working relationship with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency Country Attache in Cyprus. The U.S. does not have a bilateral narcotics agreement with Jordan.

The Road Ahead. Embassy officials expect continued cooperation with Jordanian enforcement and policy officials on anti-narcotics matters, and hope to assist Jordan as it carries out its three-year national

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Continuation of Africa and the Middle East

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