Fiscal Year 2001 International Narcotics
and Law Enforcement Affairs Budget
Released by the Bureau for International Narcotics and
Law Enforcement Affairs, April 2000
Budget Summary1 ($000)
|FY 1999 Actual||FY 2000 Estimated||FY 2001 Request|
- Combat the growing threat to U.S. national security posed by international organized crime;
- Assist emerging democracies to strengthen their national judicial and law enforcement institutions' capabilities to counter illegal criminal activities through training, equipment, technical assistance and by sponsoring coordination task forces;
- Strengthen efforts by the UN and other international organizations to assist member states to combat international criminal activity;
- As required by the UN Resolutions, complete negotiations on an Organized Crime Convention and protocols covering firearms trafficking and the trafficking in persons, especially women and children, and smuggling of migrants, including smuggling by sea;
- Build stronger law enforcement networks to address uncontrolled corruption resulting in the trafficking in small arms, intellectual property enforcement, combat financial crimes and money laundering, curb alien smuggling, trafficking in women and children, and violence against women and children;
- Continue to support the proposal for establishing a Migrant Smuggling Coordination Center (MSCC) to coordinate the U.S. response to the increase in migrants attempting to illegally cross border; and
- Continue the support of the Budapest, Bangkok, Gaborone, and Roswell, New Mexico International Law Enforcement Academies.
The United States is making strides in several fora towards enhancing international cooperation in the fight against international organized crime. In FY 1999, over 4,000 law enforcement officers from Central Europe, the New Independent States (NIS), and Southeast Asia received training under INL/ENT's Anticrime Training and Technical Assistance Program (ACTTA). Several participant agencies reported that partnerships forged through this training with their counterparts in these areas are solving cases of mutual concern. The INL-funded International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEA) in Budapest and in Bangkok trained numerous police managers during this past year. Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada, Italy, Russia and the Council of Europe are providing instructors to teach units on nuclear smuggling, organized crime, VAT evasion, human rights and media relations as part of the standard eight-week ILEA program. President Clinton's UNGA speech in October 1995 referred to the Budapest Academy as a model for developing other regional academies around the world. In early 1999, the new ILEA in Bangkok began operations to train law enforcement personnel from that geographic region. In FY 2001, training should begin at the ILEA in Gaborone. Also in FY 2001, INL will provide resources to begin work on an ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico.
INL has developed a financial crimes training program for providing law enforcement, rule of law and central bank training and technical assistance to emerging democracies. A prime focus of the program is a multi-agency approach to addressing international financial crimes, law enforcement development, and organized crime training. Instructors from INL, DOJ, Treasury Department component agencies -- including the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) -- the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve (FRB), and nongovernment organizationsoffered law enforcement and criminal justice training programs worldwide.
During 1999, INL funded numerous programs to combat international financial crimes, focusing on money laundering. Nearly every federal law enforcement agency assisted in this effort by providing basic and advanced training courses in all aspects of financial criminal activity. In addition, many federal agencies were provided funding to conduct assessments and develop specialized training in identified countries worldwide.
As in previous years, INL training programs continue to focus on the interagency approach and bring together, where possible, law enforcement, judicial and central bank authorities in assessments and training programs. This approach allows for an exchange of information and dialogue not usually undertaken by those attending the training seminars and has proven successful around the globe. INL also funded programs to address the growing international problem of intellectual property theft in conjunction with the Department of Justice, the Customs Service, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Commerce Department, and the Copyright Office. Private sector participation in this area is encouraged, as U.S. rightsholders often know best where their property is most at risk.
In FY 1999, INL funded a program for Russian prosecutors and judges to continue the dialogue on the enforcement of intellectual property rights. Although Russia continues to be a major market for pirated intellectual property and a major concern from an enforcement standpoint, the NIS, in particular Ukraine, will continue to occupy much of INL's intellectual property enforcement agenda. In this and other regions of the world, one country's solution to intellectual property theft often creates pirate-havens in neighboring countries. This was the case when Bulgaria stepped-up enforcement efforts, causing Bulgarian pirates to flee to Ukraine where such an enforcement regime was practically nonexistent. INL is committed to working both bilaterally and regionally in order to address this global phenomenon.
An initiative to work with the National Insurance Crime Bureau, the FBI and USCS is designed to recover stolen U.S. vehicles from Central America and the Caribbean. The U.S. has developed a model treaty and training program for local law enforcement to identify, recover, and return stolen vehicles to their U.S. owners. This treaty has been signed with Belize, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, and Guatemala. Talks are still underway with Honduras, Panama and Venezuela. To date, Panama, El Salvador, Honduras, and Venezuela have received training on combating stolen car trafficking.
INL-sponsored ATF/USCS training provided Basic Firearms Trafficking courses in Latin America and the Caribbean and advanced courses (conducted in the U.S.) for fifteen countries from these regions. Teams from these two agencies also performed needs assessments and assisted authorities in tracing seized firearms in ten countries. In addition, an International Firearms Regional Seminar attended by key law enforcement personnel from 15 countries was conducted last year in Miami.
Since 1993, an interagency working group chaired by INL has coordinated the interdiction of over 20 Chinese alien smuggling vessels and the return of their illegal immigrants to China. Moreover, the U.S. is working with the Inter-Governmental Consultations group (IGC), the International Organization for Migration, the Regional Conference on Migration, the European Union, the Budapest Group, and the G-8 to coordinate enforcement efforts, assist origin and transit countries combat alien smuggling and trafficking in people, and to enact anti-smuggling laws where none currently exist. The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), the United Nations Crime Commission, and the International Maritime Organization have adopted resolutions condemning alien smuggling and trafficking in women and children and directed the creation of protocols to the Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime regarding alien smuggling and trafficking in persons, especially women and children. Beginning in 1999, an Ad Hoc Committee of the UNGA has been negotiating these two protocols with the intention of completing work in 2000. The U.S. must ensure it is able to carry out the requirements of these protocols and assist other nations to do the same.
INL's trafficking and violence against women and children program continues to grow in Russia and other countries in the NIS, and it is now expanding to other parts of the world. In Russia and the NIS, these programs included supporting public information campaigns to alert potential victims of trafficking schemes and providing grants to American nongovernmental organizations to work with local government and community groups in developing a coordinated response to addressing domestic violence and trafficking in women and children. ILEA Bangkok was the site for a regional program on illegal migration and trafficking in women and children conducted by the office of the INS District Director. INL, the Department of Justice, the FBI and U.S. Customs coordinated in the development of the first U.S.-European Union conference on combating child pornography on the Internet. INL is now working with the European Union to bring together computer forensics analysts to share expertise on retrieval and analysis of data from computers for use in child pornography cases.
The Caribbean Crime Initiative is designed to enhance ongoing efforts to combat organized criminal activity in the region. A regional witness security training program, for example, has been developed as part of this initiative. This program is being implemented to improve Caribbean government protection of witnesses prior to and during the trial.
In the area of critical infrastructure protection (CIP) issues, INL will carry out its responsibilities as the Department's functional coordinator. INL will lead the USG international outreach effort under PDD-63, through a program of interagency meetings and coordination, establishment of a database of USG international CIP activities, and travel to engage other nations, IOs and multinational corporations in CIP discussions and efforts.
FY 2001 Programs. The FY 2001 budget request is based on the requirements set forth in PDD-42, "International Organized Crime," and the Administration's International Crime Control Strategy and reflects the consolidated management of law enforcement and police training programs. INL will use federal, state and local law enforcement agencies, the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP), the Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development (OPDAT), and other organizations to provide law enforcement training programs and technical assistance to the NIS, Russia, Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia. The program will place significant emphasis on combating organized crime, financial crimes, money laundering, migrant smuggling, and weapons trafficking. Funding for these programs will continue to come, as they have in the past, through a combination of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) funds, FREEDOM Support Act funds, and Support for Eastern Europe Democracy (SEED) Act funds.
NIS, Russia, and Central Europe
Russia and the New Independent States. INL will fund advanced training programs and regional legal advisors to strengthen the capacity of the governments of Russia and other states in this region to combat the activities of organized crime, including financial crimes and illegal trafficking in goods and people. INL will continue to fund training and technical assistance programs in Russia and the NIS carried out by the FBI, Secret Service, DEA, Customs, OPDAT, ICITAP, IRS, State's Office of Diplomatic Security, other U.S. federal law enforcement agencies, and other nongovernmental organizations. Such support will focus on financial crimes, money laundering, organized crime, domestic violence, trafficking in women and children, and drug trafficking.
Central Europe. INL will support law enforcement training and technical assistance programs in Central Europe, as SEED funding permits.
Alien Smuggling/Trafficking in Women and Children. INL will assist Russia, other countries in the NIS, and Central Europe to more effectively combat alien smuggling and trafficking in women and children. In addition to training, resident legal advisors will assist these countries to enact anti-smuggling/trafficking legislation. INL will continue to work with international organizations to promote cooperation among sending, transit and receiving countries. If the proposal to establish a Migrant Smuggling Coordination Center (MSCC) is agreed upon and participated in by INS, State, Coast Guard and other agencies, it will assist the U.S. to focus more clearly its efforts to combat alien smuggling/trafficking. INL will renew training for immigration and border officers on combat alien smuggling/trafficking. INL also plans to offer a new program at ILEA Budapest for law enforcement officers and prosecutors on investigating and prosecuting trafficking in women and children cases. Support will continue for anti-domestic violence programs targeted at the local governments and communities in the region.
Legal and Regulatory Reform. Working with Justice and Treasury agencies, INL will continue the development of programs to assist central banks and other financial institutions to prevent and investigate financial fraud and money laundering. INL will also provide legal assistance and regulatory reform programs on witness protection, community policing, and drug and crime prevention, including prevention and investigation of domestic violence and sexual assault, alien smuggling and trafficking of women and children, and trafficking in small arms and automobiles.
Law Enforcement Training. INL will support programs to assist justice sector, law enforcement and regulatory agencies in Latin America and the Caribbean in their efforts to combat international criminal activities, particularly financial fraud, intellectual property theft, alien smuggling and money laundering. These programs will be designed to complement INL's ongoing in-country counternarcotics and crime programs. INL will provide resources to begin work on an ILEA for the Western Hemisphere in Roswell, New Mexico.
Stolen Vehicles. INL will fund the next phase of the program to negotiate bilateral agreements with regional governments. These agreements will provide standard procedures for the recovery and return from the Caribbean and Central America of stolen U.S. vehicles and provide training for law enforcement agencies to reduce the approximately $1 billion of losses in vehicle theft from the U.S. each year. The U.S. insurance industry strongly supports this program, which has expanded to South America and other parts of the world where stolen U.S. vehicles are being marketed in large numbers.
Alien Smuggling/Trafficking in Women and Children. Through INL's efforts, many Latin American countries are beginning to improve their efforts to combat alien smuggling by enacting anti-smuggling legislation, and by coordinating enforcement operations against alien smugglers. INL will continue to assist these countries combat alien smuggling through training, information sharing and coordinated enforcement operations. INL will support new training and technical assistance programs to combat trafficking and violence against women and children.
Firearms Trafficking. INL will coordinate the third year of a joint ATF/Customs training program to assist Latin American countries to develop their own programs to combat firearms trafficking as required by the OAS Convention. Assistance will include teaching weapons identification, classification, nomenclature, markings for the purpose of conducting traces, and procedures for requesting U.S. law enforcement assistance.
Intellectual Property. INL will continue to devote attention and resources to Latin America, as this region is increasingly becoming a haven for international pirates and counterfeiters often associated with organized criminal activities. In particular, Paraguay has been a long-standing problem, as has the Tri-border Region of Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. INL will address intellectual property enforcement concerns through appropriate technical assistance measures, training, and bilateral consultations.
Africa, South Asia and East Asia
Africa. In conjunction with Treasury, DOJ, DOD, CIA, and other State Department bureaus, INL will continue to support the small arms program that provides law enforcement training and technical assistance in newly emerging democracies. INL also will provide technical assistance on illegal trafficking in nuclear materials, community-based policing, administration of justice, money laundering, intellectual property enforcement, and legislative and judicial reform. INL will provide the necessary resources to the ILEA in Gaborone, Botswana and begin the post-training evaluations.
East Asia. INL will provide law enforcement training to prevent financial fraud and money laundering, combat organized crime groups involved in alien smuggling and/or trafficking in women and children, and deter intellectual property piracy. ILEA Bangkok will explore the need to improve the Academy's physical plant and begin post-academy evaluation. INL will support information campaigns to warn potential victims of trafficking in persons schemes as well as support local programs to train law enforcement and criminal justice officials to investigate and prosecute trafficking and violence against women and children cases.
South Asia. INL will support additional local programs to train law enforcement and criminal justice officials to investigate and prosecute trafficking and violence against women and children cases.
ILEAs. INL will continue funding for law enforcement and criminal justice training programs at the International Law Enforcement Training Academy (ILEA) in Budapest. The ILEA offers a core law enforcement training course targeted at mid-level mangers in the police and criminal justice services of countries in Central Europe and the NIS. To date, over 1,000 officials from 25 countries have successfully completed this course. ILEA Budapest also offers regional seminars and specialized training courses. More than 1,500 criminal justice offices have participated in these courses.
ILEA Bangkok opened in March 1999. The curriculum and structure of this Academy is similar to that of Budapest, except for the duration of the core course and an added emphasis on narcotics matters. In addition to the core course, ILEA Bangkok also offers specialized courses in a wide range of topics. Since its inception, over 600 officials from 10 Southeast Asian nations have attended. Funding in FY 2001 will continue for the Academy.
A new ILEA will be established in Gaborone, Botswana. The format will be similar to that of Bangkok and Budapest. Negotiations with Bostwana began in January 2000, and training is expected to begin toward the end of FY 2000. FY 2001 funding will make it fully operational. INL will provide resources to begin work on an ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico, which will have more of an academic focus rather than the law enforcement training orientation of the ILEAs in Budapest, Bangkok and Gaborone.
International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP). INL will fund ICITAP law enforcement and forensics training that will be provided for countries in transition from civil strife or military rule to democratic rule (e.g., Haiti, Bosnia, the Middle East and Africa). Multilateral Organizations and Initiatives. Funding for the UN's Center for International Crime Prevention and other multilateral organizations will be provided for specific justice sector and law enforcement training and technical assistance programs, including to combat the trafficking in women and children.
Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and Other Anti-Money Laundering Initiatives. INL will support key activities and meetings of the FATF, international organizations, and regional training and technical assistance projects to fight money-laundering crimes (e.g., by the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering, Caribbean Financial Action Task Force, OAS/CICAD and the Council of Europe).
Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO). For FY 2001, a total of $180,000 is requested for the U.S. annual compulsory contribution to the Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), an organization established under the auspices of the Council of Europe to promote adherence to anti-corruption norms.
INL funding will support established narcotics and law enforcement affairs offices in Kiev and Moscow, including salaries and administrative costs. Support funds will also be applied to certain domestic administrative costs associated with programs directed against transnational organized crime.
- Minimized duplication of U.S. police network formulation to combat international organized crime and international financial and economic crimes, particularly money laundering, intellectual property enforcement, and international illegal trafficking-alien smuggling, trafficking in firearms and in women and children;
- Strengthened technical ability of emerging democracies and their institutions to deal with the challenges of organized crime groups and other serious crimes;
- Partnerships formed between U.S. law enforcement agencies and their counterparts in solving international cases of mutual concern;
- Reduction of organized criminal groups, illegal trafficking of goods and people, and financial and economic crimes; and
- Improved law enforcement capability and effectiveness of member states of the United Nations via activities of the UN Center for Crime Prevention.
1NOTE: In FY 1999 INL was transferred or allocated $26.25 million in FREEDOM Support Act (FSA), $57.628 million in Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act funds, $2.047 million in Economic Support Funds (ESF), $10 million in Central America and the Caribbean Emergency Disaster Recovery Funds, and $4.75 million in PKO funds. INL anticipates receiving FSA, SEED Act and PKO funds in FY 2000 and FY 2001.
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