Fiscal Year 2001 International Narcotics
and Law Enforcement Affairs Budget
Released by the Bureau for International Narcotics and
Law Enforcement Affairs, April 2000
Budget Summary ($000)
|FY 1999 Actual||FY 2000 Estimated||FY 2001 Request|
- Maintain strategic leadership in focusing and guiding the international drug control effort and create a political atmosphere which encourages other countries to view drug control as a major foreign policy concern and motivates them to strengthen domestic measures;
- Assist countries in developing the institutional infrastructure to reduce the production and trafficking of drugs by strengthening law enforcement agencies, modernizing judicial systems, and developing drug laws so that countries can investigate, prosecute, and punish major drug kingpins, and to reduce the demand for drugs;
- Use UNDCP, OAS/CICAD, Colombo Plan and other international organizations to plan and execute programs which expand multilateral cooperation, advance U.S. international drug control goals or take the place of U.S.-funded programs in countries where there is limited U.S. presence; and
- Support efforts to make drug control an integral part of UN programs and to ensure that a wide range of UN assistance efforts further counternarcotics goals.
As a result of the June 1998 United Nations General Assembly Special Session, international organizations (IOs) are becoming increasingly important to international drug control. This meeting renewed the global commitment to combat illicit drugs and underscored the growing emphasis on such multilateral issues as chemical control, money laundering and maritime cooperation, and the elimination of illicit drug crops. It is essential that INL provide support through IOs for programs in these areas -- with particular emphasis on eliminating illicit drug crop cultivation, notably of opium poppy.
U.S. support for the counternarcotics programs of multilateral organizations offers several advantages over unilateral action, such as stimulating increased contributions from other donors and countering the misperception that drugs are exclusively a U.S. problem. Multilateral programs can also reach regions where the U.S. is unable to operate bilaterally, for political or logistical reasons. In addition, activities or initiatives sponsored by the UN, OAS and other multilateral organizations are often more palatable to countries with sovereignty sensitivities and bring the weight of the international community to bear on a problem or an issue of general concern.
INL provides funds to international organizations such as UNDCP, OAS/CICAD and the Colombo Plan's Drug Advisory Program. Additionally, UN agencies, the international financial institutions, and multilateral banks engaged in development programs in drug source countries have a role to play by factoring counternarcotics goals into their activities. INL will promote activities through UNDCP for these bodies to carry out.
UNDCP. The significant increase in the U.S. contribution to the UN drug effort in 1999 helped foster greater international focus on implementing the commitments of the UN conventions-particularly in developing and promoting programs to eliminate illicit crops. The USG was also able to achieve a key objective of developing a useful follow-up program to assess whether nations are implementing the UNGA Special Session goals and key target deadlines. U.S. contributions to UNDCP have had significant impact on the operations and expansion of UN counternarcotics programs and policy and have led to increased commitment from other donors, whose primary vehicle for international drug control efforts continues to be the UN.
Recent U.S. contributions to UNDCP have fostered an expansion of the Southeast Asia program which targets the second largest opium producer, Burma, where opium production is beginning to decline. This UN-led program encompasses China, Thailand and Laos, and now includes three projects in the Wa-controlled area of Burma and a project for the Kachin-controlled area; the development of a program to support our eradication campaign in the largest opium producer, Afghanistan, and the provision of training and advice to bolster law enforcement and customs institutions in areas surrounding Afghanistan. In addition, U.S. contributions to UNDCP enhance coordination of bilateral and multilateral aid to Central Europe and the New Independent States (NIS); the provision of chemical control investigative training and administrative advice in Southwest Asia, Central Asia, the Caribbean and Latin America; development of a maritime training program; anti-money laundering assistance; establishment of a regional training project in the Caribbean to train prosecutors and judges in order to improve conviction rates on narcotics-related cases; the development of a Caribbean regional program to assess and coordinate all aid to the region; promotion of regional cooperation in Central America to target increased drug trafficking through the region; the development of a program in the region of Southern Africa to assist nations in the development and implementation of counternarcotics legislation; establishment of a demand reduction training center for Central European nations; and provision of legislative advice which continues to foster significant changes in counternarcotics laws in Central Europe and the NIS in order to implement the 1988 UN Convention.
OAS/CICAD. Meanwhile, the demands for OAS involvement in the counternarcotics arena have also increased. The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), which has been an important means of building a hemispheric consensus on drugs and channeling our collective efforts for over a decade, has become even more critical to U.S. international objectives in the wake of the 1998 Santiago Summit of the Americas. At the Summit, the Heads of State committed to fully implement the Anti-Drug Strategy in the Hemisphere-which includes expansion of ongoing CICAD program and training activities. The Summit Action Plan also endorsed a U.S. proposal for a hemispheric peer review system to monitor and evaluate the counternarcotics performance of the OAS Member States, both individually and collectively, in implementing the goals of the hemispheric drug strategy. The resulting Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) was approved by CICAD in October 1999 and launched in November. The usefulness of the MEM's analysis and recommendations to the governments in developing or refining their drug strategies and improving their national counternarcotics capabilities is critical to its ultimate success. The CICAD Secretariat will likewise be tested on its ability to respond to requests from Member States for technical assistance or training to address those shortcomings. As CICAD's principal funding source, INL financial support will be critical, both to support the MEM and to respond programmatically to its findings and recommendations. The MEM is being watched closely by the EU, the UN and other bodies as a possible model for monitoring national compliance with other multilateral agreements or conventions.
U.S. contributions to OAS/CICAD have produced such direct results as: model regulations on money laundering and asset forfeiture, chemical diversion, and trafficking in firearms, along with training and technical assistance to governments in implementing them; the Inter-American Telecommunications Network for Drug Control (RETCOD), to improve the ability of national drug commissions to communicate with each other and CICAD; hemispheric drug information systems-CICDAT on supply side statistics, SIDUC to track demand side statistics and IADIS, a data bank of documents and reference materials (which will be merged in CY 2000-2001 into an Inter-American Observatory on Drugs to support the MEM); a regional Central American legal development and training center which assists governments in developing counternarcotics laws and sentencing guidelines; a regional demand reduction strategy for the hemisphere, stimulating public awareness and drug abuse prevention campaigns through governmental and nongovernmental organizations; coordination of demand reduction programming for street children and women; a standardized system of ongoing epidemiological surveillance which has been implemented in Central America and is being expanded to other sub-regions; drug abuse prevention programs for under-served indigenous communities in Central America, drug abuse program personnel from the Caribbean, and for youth and parents; drug abuse prevention and treatment training for nursing school personnel, counselors and others who work with street children, and research and fellowships for technical personnel; projects to promote communication and cooperation among regional customs services, among port authorities, and drug law enforcement agencies; establishment of a telecommunications network for control of precursor chemicals in the Andean producer countries and neighbor states; a Generalized Land-Use Evaluation and Management Tool (GLEAM) to map land use, both legal and illegal, for use in supporting national supply reduction efforts (law enforcement and alternative development); integrated pest management projects to assist growers of viable legitimate crops (e.g., coffee, cacao, bananas) working in drug crop-producing areas, critical to sustainable alternative development; and money laundering prevention programs for financial institutions throughout the hemisphere, including training for bank regulators and supervisory agencies, judges, prosecutors, and financial intelligence/analysis units.
Colombo Plan. As a result of the Colombo Plan's regional demand reduction training sessions in Southwest and Southeast Asia, nations have developed self-sufficient prevention, education, treatment, and after-care programs, in addition to national- and regional-level networks of public and private sector demand reduction programs that are designed to build strong public support and strengthen the political will. One area of interest to the international community is the model after-care and correctional drug intervention programs for juveniles developed in Southeast Asia.
U.S. contributions to the Colombo Plan's Drug Advisory Program (DAP) are having a significant impact on the development and administration of demand reduction programs in Southeast and Southwest Asia. The DAP assisted with the creation of the first-ever international network of drug prevention NGOs through their co-sponsorship of an international drug prevention summit in Bangkok in November 1999. The level of U.S. contributions has led to increased commitment from other donors, particularly Japan, Korea and Australia. Recent INL contributions to the DAP have fostered: development of host government-funded treatment programs in Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, China and the Philippines; development of a coalition of drug prevention programs in Southwest Asia; development of a drug prevention curriculum for Pakistani school systems; a major regional coalition of drug prevention programs in Southeast Asia (IFNGO); and a number of host government funded community and school-based prevention initiatives in ASEAN countries with IFNGO support.
FY 2001 Programs. UNDCP. Continued USG assistance for UNDCP in FY 2001 is needed to sustain Executive Director Arlacchi's efforts to pursue a global strategy to eliminate opium and coca by 2008. This aid is particularly important to allow UNDCP to assist countries to consolidate and capitalize on the decline in opium production in Pakistan and Burma this year. INL funds will be used to: support the global strategy to eliminate illicit cultivation, including pathogen research in both Asia and Latin America; begin and sustain projects in the largest opium producing areas of South East Asia where the U.S. has limited access (e.g., Burma, Laos, China, Vietnam, Cambodia); support and leverage additional European support for programs in Southwest Asia where opium cultivation is escalating, specifically in Afghanistan and Pakistan, including pursuing an enhanced interdiction strategy in the surrounding region; strengthen drug control institutions and regional cooperation in the NIS; coordinate and provide law enforcement training, judicial assistance, and demand reduction assistance to strengthen the counter-drug institutions in Central Europe and Africa; provide additional technical assistance to support the strengthening of host government institutions in the Western Hemisphere involved in the investigation, prosecution, and confinement of major drug traffickers; continue legal advice to assist the drafting and implementation of legislation to implement the 1988 UN Convention; continue chemical control training to assist governments to implement chemical control regimes; and continue a maritime cooperation training program.
OAS/CICAD. INL will continue to be CICAD's primary funding source in the years ahead. The FY 2001 budget request will support the effective operation of the MEM and enable CICAD to provide the follow-up technical support and training that Member States will need to address shortcomings identified in national or regional counternarcotics efforts. Funding will encompass program activities that strengthen national drug commissions; enhance national performance and regional cooperation on control of drug smuggling, money laundering, chemical diversion, and arms trafficking; provide specialized law enforcement training, such as customs inspection and maritime interdiction; promote administration of justice reform; reduce or prevent drug abuse; develop or refine sub-regional models and curricula for drug awareness education (school- and community-based); promote best practices or establish regional standards for drug treatment; mobilize communities against drug abuse and trafficking; and promote sustainable alternative development in narcotics-producing regions.
Colombo Plan. INL funds will expand the Colombo Plan's prevention and treatment networks, in addition to linking the Asian networks to their counterparts in Latin America and other regions of the world in the establishment of the first global prevention network. FY 2001 funding will also support: continuing workshops on the development of model after-care facilities and drug intervention programs for juveniles in correctional settings, evaluation of model treatment and rehabilitation programs for adults/juveniles in correctional settings, workshops for integrated policy development and implementation for the national-level drug secretariats of key producing and transit countries.
- Strategic UNDCP programs that target all aspects of the drug problem and include clear recipient commitment;
- Shift to subregional programs which address the transnational reality of the drug trade;
- Evaluation of programs against the achievement of genuine counternarcotics goals;
- Attention to potential new source and transit countries;
- Increased ratification and implementation of the 1988 Convention and support for the development of national institutions needed to achieve the Convention's goals;
- Elimination of illicit drug crops;
- Increased provision of law enforcement and demand reduction training, as well as treatment training where drug abuse is a serious problem; and
- Devotion of significant resources to the establishment of programs to assist governments with controlling the trade in precursor and essential chemicals, and to confront maritime trafficking.
INL Budget ($000)
FY 1999 FY 2000 FY 2001 UN International Drug Control Program
8,470 9,400 9,400 OAS/CICAD 500 2,300 2,300 Colombo Plan 200 300 300 OECD 30 -- -- Total 9,200 12,000 12,000
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