|FIELD SURVEY OF |
PUBLIC DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS
Office of the Under Secretary for
Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs
Released: October 2000
TABLE OF CONTENTS
One of my goals as Under Secretary was a thorough review of the usefulness and viability of public diplomacy support for the field. In January 2000, all ambassadors were asked for their views on the products and programs of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA), the Bureau of Public Affairs (PA) and the Office of International Information Programs (IIP). The last survey of this kind was conducted in 1992-93.
Altogether 123 missions responded between January and March 2000. For each product or program, Missions were asked to indicate whether they use it and to explain, if they do not, why not. They were also asked to rate those they use, together with an explanation of their rating, and to list the five most useful and five least useful products.
All Ambassadors were asked in January 2000 to rate 63 worldwide products and programs provided by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA), the Office of the Coordinator of International Information Programs (IIP), and the Bureau of Public Affairs (PA) in terms of their usefulness in achieving Mission goals and objectives. In addition, relevant Embassies were asked to rate 51 regional and single-country ECA programs. Altogether 123 Missions worldwide responded between January and March 2000.
For each product or program, the Missions were asked to rate only those they use on a scale ranging from 5 (extremely useful) to 1 (not at all useful) and then to explain the reasons for their rating. For products or programs they do not use, Missions were requested to explain why they do not. In addition, Missions were asked to consider all the products they do use and to list the five which are most useful in achieving their objectives and the five which are least useful. The survey was sent to Missions via E-mail, and nearly all of the responses were received electronically.
Public diplomacy has a long history of surveying posts to determine the usefulness of products and programs provided by Washington to the field. The most recent general survey about products and programs was done by USIA in late 1992-early 1993, while worldwide surveys were carried out about the Washington File (then called the Wireless File) in 1995 and Electronic Journals in 1998. Current results will be compared to those of the 1992-93 survey.
Analysis Presented in This Paper
This paper will provide an overview of findings on usage, usefulness ratings, and number of mentions as one of five most useful or five least useful and then discuss in detail the results for the higher-rated and lower-rated products and programs. The first four attached tables provide results for the worldwide products and programs, with Table 1 an overall presentation of usage, usefulness ratings, and most useful and least useful mentions for all products. Table 5 gives the usefulness ratings for the regional and single-country ECA programs.
Overview of Findings
On the worldwide products and programs:
Nearly all of the public diplomacy products are considered by Missions at least fairly useful (an average rating of 3 or higher). This analysis therefore looks at which are relatively more useful or less useful, which are considered the most useful and least useful products, and which are most used. Low usage -- when at the choice of Missions and not due to programmatic, language, technology, or equipment limitations -- is also an indication of low usefulness.
The results for the current survey closely parallel those of the 1992-93 survey for the 37 products and programs rated in both. Most were rated at about the same or slightly higher level than in 1992-93, with only a small number having lower ratings.
Highest Rated: Four products stand out as the most highly rated by Missions: Group and Individual International Visitor programs, the Washington File overall, and the U.S. Speakers and Specialists program. Each one of these four is considered to be one of the 5 most useful products and programs by more than half of the Missions, and two-thirds of the Missions name one of these four as the single most useful product or program. Following these four as the most highly rated -- considering both usefulness ratings and mentions in the Top 5 -- are the three major Fulbright programs -- U.S. Scholars, Visiting Scholars, and Students -- and Information Resource Center support, each of which was named by about a quarter or more of Missions as one of the five most useful. Also very highly rated, though less often mentioned as one of the five most useful, are Washington File official USG texts and transcripts, online databases, Humphrey Fellowships, and Voluntary Visitors.
Missions in non-English speaking countries clearly value the language versions of public diplomacy products, with the foreign language Electronic Journals and print publications rating somewhat higher than the English versions and the foreign language Washington File versions rating almost as highly as the Washington File overall.
Lowest Rated: Thirteen of the 63 worldwide products and programs were lowest rated -- receiving usefulness ratings of 3.5 or lower on the five-point scale. Of these 13 products and programs, 10 were also among the most often mentioned as one of the five least useful products or programs. However, even in most of these cases, roughly half of the Missions who use the product or program rated it very or extremely useful.
Among the 13 lowest rated, several of the products or programs are used by from half to three-quarters of the Missions: WORLDNET Interactive Dialogues (used by 93 Missions); Washington File staff-written articles for placement (90); tele conferences (70); Listservs (65); copyright clearances (62); Sister Cities International (59); and the Film Service of the Cultural Programs Division (54). The other low-rated products and programs are used by fewer ranging from a third to only a handful: Performing Arts Calendar (39); photo and graphic images (27); technology partnerships (14); Institute for Representative Government (10); Congressionally-mandated support for two sports exchanges -- the World Cup and Special Olympics (10); and PL 402 (Technical) training (3). Reasons for the ratings are discussed in the next section.
With a limited number of exceptions, most products and programs receive fairly consistent ratings across regions and across different-sized Missions (as grouped by the Overseas Staffing Model categories). In other words, high-rated products are generally highly rated in small and large Missions and in most or all regions, and the same general pattern is true for low-rated products.
Most-Used Products and Programs: Twenty-two of the 63 potentially worldwide products in the survey are truly worldwide in that 80% or more of the Missions use them. There is substantial continuity with the results of the 1992-93 survey in that 17 of these 22 products and programs were also among those used by 80% or more of Missions in 1992-93. The 17 appearing at the top for usage in both 1992-93 and 2000 are the Washington File overall and five parts of the File, Group and Individual International Visitor programs and the Voluntary Visitor programs, the U.S. Speakers and Specialists program, Fulbright U.S. Scholars, Visiting Scholars, and Students programs, Information Resource Center support, reference services from Washington, print publications in English, and Study of the U.S. programs.
However, the composition of the 2000 most-used list also reflects the changes made in the 1990s in the array of public diplomacy programs and products provided by the Office of the International Information Programs:
Three-quarters of the 49 regional and single country ECA programs included in the survey were rated very useful or higher. All 19 programs for NIS Missions conducted with Freedom Support Act funds received ratings near or above very useful. (See Table 5 for results on all regional and single-country programs.)
Only two of the regional or single-country programs -- Koreans from the Ministry of Government Affairs and Japanese National Personnel Authority Fellows -- were rated lower than fairly useful by the relevant Missions. Several others -- Partners of Americas, National Youth Science Camp of the Americas, the Vietnam Academic Exchange, the Burma Refugee Scholarship program, the Mansfield Fellowship program, and the U.S.-Mexico Conflict Resolution Center -- were rated only fairly useful (three or slightly higher on the usefulness scale).
In 2000, as in the 1992-93 survey, the two most highly-rated programs are the Group International Visitor programs and the Individual International Visitor programs. Both were rated at 4.8 on the five-point scale. A little under half of the Missions (43%) considered one or the other of these two as the single-most useful public diplomacy program. A little over half of the Missions put each among the five most useful programs. Over 90% Missions use each of these programs.
The Washington File overall is the most widely used program -- by all but one of the 123 Missions -- and is also among the topmost in the ratings. Over half of the Missions -- 54% -- call it one of the five most useful, and 14% call it the single most useful. The overall File in translation also ranks very highly. Ratings of the individual parts of the File vary substantially -- with the official texts and transcripts at the top followed by U.S. press items for internal use. Somewhat lower rated are the chronologies and fact sheets, the op-eds signed by USG officials, and the staff-written backgrounders. Lowest ranked are the staff-written articles for placement, which are named by a quarter of Missions -- more than any other single product -- as one of the five least useful.
Three worldwide surveys in the 1990s -- the 1992-93 product survey, a 1995 survey specifically on the File, and the current survey -- have yielded very similar results in their ratings and prioritization of different parts of the File.
The staff-written backgrounders are used by nearly 90% of Missions, with slightly more of those using them calling them very or extremely useful rather than fairly useful or less. Factors cited by those giving lower ratings are inconsistent quality, non-responsiveness to Mission goals, lack of a language version, and low usefulness in reaching audiences, while those giving them higher ratings say they are responsive to Mission goals and find them useful for outreach, timely, and/or good background reading for Mission officers. The staff-written articles for placement -- used by about three-quarters of Missions and rated most positively by African Missions -- similarly receive very or extremely useful ratings from about half the posts using them. A quarter of the posts using them considered them not very or not at all useful. Posts not using them or rating them low generally say that placement: (1) is very difficult or impossible in their country; or (2) can be done only with byliners by well-known individuals or articles on certain targeted topics.
The U.S. Speakers and Specialists program was considered one of the five most useful product by more Missions -- 59% -- than any other single product and is among the most highly rated of public diplomacy products. It rates higher (4.6 on the five-point scale) than any of the electronic speaker programs -- Digital Video Conferences, tele conferences, and WORLDNET Interactive Dialogues -- and substantially higher than the latter two. It is prized for its responsiveness to Mission goals, its help in meeting key people in local society, and its usefulness in building long-term relationships. While Speaker programs were also highly rated in the 1992-93 survey, their rating is even stronger in 2000.
Digital Video Conferences were not part of the 1992-93 survey because the equipment was only being installed at the first Missions then. In the past two or three years, the number of Missions with DVCs has grown substantially, reaching 65 currently with the equipment already purchased for installation at an additional 43 Missions. DVCs -- rated an average of very useful (4.0) -- were used by 53 Missions that responded to the survey. Many of the comments reflect that this is a new tool that clearly is in evolution and that many are only beginning to use, but also suggest that many Missions view DVCs as more useful than tele conferences and WORLDNET interactives because they provide face-to-face communication in a relatively flexible way. Some posts find tele conferences useful because they are flexible, can be used quickly and easily, and are cost effective, but others do not like the low tech nature of them and the lack of face-to-face communication.
WORLDNET Interactive Dialogues -- rated about as highly as Speakers in the 1992-93 survey -- have dropped in their ratings more than any other product tested in both surveys -- from 4.1 in 1992-93 to 3.5 currently. Thirty Missions -- the second highest number for any product -- name them as one of the five least useful products. In addition, usage has dropped from over 90% of Missions to three-quarters. While over half of the Missions using them rate them as very or extremely useful for their responsiveness to Mission goals, their help in meeting key people in local society, content, and timeliness as well as the possibility of placement, those not using them or rating them lower mention one or more of the following factors: the quality is uneven, they are too labor intensive and difficult to arrange, multi-country participation leaves too little time for any single Mission, and they are not responsive to Mission goals.
Following the Group and Individual International Visitor programs, the highest rated programs of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs are the three major Fulbright exchanges -- the U.S. Scholar, Visiting Scholar, and Student programs. These are each mentioned by about a quarter of Missions as one of the five most useful. Next ranked after the Fulbright programs are the Humphrey Fellowships, Voluntary Visitors, educational advising services, Study of the U.S., and Jazz Ambassadors. The Fulbright Teacher Exchange -- used by one-third of posts -- rates just a little lower than the major Fulbright programs.
Apart from Speakers and Specialists and the Washington File, the IIP products and programs which are most highly rated are Information Resource Center Support and online databases (both rated at 4.6 on the five-point scale), the web sites, and the foreign language versions of three products: the Washington File (4.4), Electronic Journals (4.3), and print publications (4.3). The English language versions of Electronic Journals and print publications rated somewhat lower, at 3.7 and 3.8 respectively, though this is just below an average of very useful.
The broadly available English language support programs -- used by between 56 and 96 Missions -- rate very useful or higher, ranging from the English Teaching Forum magazine at 3.9 on the five-point scale to English language officer programs at 4.3. The 11 Missions with a Direct English Teaching program give it an average rating of 4.5 (with 8 of 11 Missions calling it extremely useful).
Some of the lower-rated programs and products -- particularly WORLDNET interactive dialogues, tele conferences, and Washington File staff-written articles -- have been discussed above in comparison to related higher-rated ones. This section will look at the other lower-rated public diplomacy products and programs.
The Film Service of the Cultural Programs Division is used by under half of the Missions (54) and rated at 3.5 on the five-point usefulness scale. Few posts commented on it, with a number saying that it is used very rarely. Among the 68 Missions not using it, most are either not familiar with it, do not consider it applicable, or believe it a low priority. Sixteen Missions called it one of the five least useful products.
Copyright clearances are used by half of the Missions and rated at 3.4. However, many of those using it volunteered that while they need it very little and use it very little, it is very useful -- a number say essential -- when it is needed. In fact, half of those using it rated it either extremely or very useful. Many of those not using either say it is not applicable to them or it is too low a priority for their resources. Eighteen Missions called it one of the five least useful.
Listservs, a recently developed public diplomacy product used by just over half of Missions, is also rated at 3.4. Many of those not using are either not familiar with it or say it is not appropriate given the level of technology in the local society. Half of those using it rate it extremely or very useful, citing its timeliness, responsiveness to mission goals, and use within the Mission. Those rating it fairly useful or less most often explain their rating by saying it is not responsive to Mission goals and is not useful in reaching local audiences. Twenty-five Missions, or 20%, called it one of the five least useful.
Sister Cities International, used by almost half of the Missions, is rated just at the fairly useful level (3.1 on the five-point scale). Many of those not using it say it is either not applicable to the Mission or too low a priority for resources. Only 38% of those using it say it is extremely useful (4 Missions) or very useful, citing its usefulness in building long-term relationships. Many of those commenting on it say they like the idea, but that the linkages don't result in much activity or the cities do it on their own without Mission involvement. Twenty-two Missions called it one of the five least useful.
The Performing Arts Calendar, used by about a third of Missions, is also rated only fairly useful (2.9 on the five-point scale). Only ten Missions -- a quarter of those using it -- rated it as extremely useful (2 Missions) or very useful. Those not using it say they are not familiar with it, it is not applicable to their Mission, or it is a low priority. Few Missions volunteered comments, and most of those saw it as not essential. Twenty-six Missions, or 20%, called it one of the five least useful.
Photo and graphic images, used by only 20% of Missions, are also rated about fairly useful (3.1). Forty-seven Missions -- half of those not using this service -- are not familiar with it, while others said it is not applicable or a low priority. About ten Missions -- one-third of those using it -- rated it extremely useful (2 Missions) or very useful. Few Missions volunteered comments, mostly saying it is rarely used or not needed. Twenty-three Missions, or almost 20%, called it one of the five least useful.
The other four lowest-rated products or programs are all used by 10% or fewer of Missions: technology partnerships (which half of the Missions are not familiar with), two congressionally-mandated programs (the Institute for Representative Government and the World Cup and Special Olympics sports exchanges), and the PL 402 (Technical) Training program used by only three Missions.
Of new initiatives requested by the Ambassadors, most are adaptations of existing programs and services. The most frequently suggested new initiative is a desire for a return to American cultural exhibits, artists and performer programs. Washington program managers and bureaus will want to analyze all of the mission proposals for feasibility, scope of interest and resource implications.
Take advantage of what we already have
A recurring response from many missions across all regions is the need for more resources and staff to take better advantage of the programs that are currently available.
A mid-size African mission:
Many of the programs that we do not use now are valuable and would be of great use, if we had the resources.A mid-size NEA Mission:
More staff to help us make use of the many excellent products already available and to meet the many demands we have on us, especially after consolidation.Strengthen what we do best
Several missions urge that Washington programmers strengthen our most successful programs, rather than extend our limited resources with new initiatives:
There is less need for introducing new initiatives than in strengthening the best of the current ones. Please use this survey as ammunition to enhance the value of the "tried and true" rather than chipping away at the budget by lengthening the shopping list.
We do not need new programs. We need better funding for the current programs that work well by eliminating those that are not effective.A mid-size SA mission:
Would like to see more effort in doing a few programs well than maintaining costs of programs funded poorly.Give us more of the same
Paralleling the product ratings, the survey does reflect that missions want more of the same. Ambassadors' wish lists include requests for a broad range of increased ECA programs:
Missions also want more of the current IIP programs and services, particularly technology-based products. Ambassadors' lists include:
More informational products (websites, Washington File, CD Roms, on-line databases and other reference materials in Spanish. Either that or invest more heavily in English teaching...so that our contacts will be able to access the material...otherwise a lot of good policy related and informational material about the U.S. is simply going to waste.PA
An Ambassador from one of the largest EAP missions, wants "more and better" interactive support. And from a mid-size WHA mission:
We would like to see an overhaul of TV: new interactive programming that is more flexible and responsive to post program needs.A return to cultural presentations
Over ten percent of missions throughout all regions request a return to American cultural exhibits, artists and performer programs:
There has been a sharp decrease in cultural programs, including performing groups and arts exhibits. We feel this trend should be reversed. Cultural programs...increase the intellectual prestige of the U.S. and open doors to sometimes hard to reach audiences.
More touring performances at prices that post can affordAsia:
USG-assisted programs of exhibits, artists and performers still have relevance--even [when we are] flooded with American pop culture. High quality U.S. cultural programs--especially when co-sponsored..."tell America's story" to foreign audiences. They can generate positive media and public attention and emphasize that American culture is diverse and vibrant and reflects American values.
By dropping its Arts America program, ...contributed to a situation in which we are perceived to have abandoned cultural completely.South Asia:
Need to reestablish a serious, low-cost performing arts programming capability. Solos and duos. Nothing complicated.Europe:
We would like to have more available to us in the performing and visual arts. Well-known actors, directors, singers, writers, etc. would all provide welcome centerpieces for contact with elites, and more direct programming in the arts would help counter the persistent impression of the U.S. overseas as an insensitive giant.WHA:
A return to a modest degree of cultural programming (in the broadest sense) to counter the perception that popular entertainment (film, TV and music) is the exclusive representative of U.S. society and culture.Improve on what we are doing
Most other initiatives proposed by the Ambassadors represent adaptations and improvements in existing Washington programs to better meet field needs. And there is the occasional request to reinstate programs dropped by USIA in past years due to budget exigencies or changing technology (libraries, magazines, exhibits, photos).
Some of the new initiatives relate to one-country or regional needs and the Regional Public Diplomacy Director may wish to pursue with the Mission in collaboration with IIP, ECA and PA.
Other responses indicate simply a need for more information to the Ambassador about the specific program offered. Some initiative requests are for programs already available.
Specific initiatives proposed by one or more Ambassadors include:
A Chinese language file service. [newly funded]
A Washington-produced web-based compilation of writings from U.S. journals with copyrights to key to mission program plan issues.
DVCs before/after Foreign Press Center briefings.
Daily press guidance from regional bureaus accessible from passworded website.
Streaming audio/video of noon State briefings, or video highlights; incorporate transcripts into Washington File or other rapid delivery.
Opinion and research files published in Wireless File and available on website.
"Top 10" queries compiled and distributed to IRCs and available on web.
Exhibit support for a generic poster show about the USA given to schools and other organizations, serving Embassies globally.
Drawing on NATO tour model--tours for South Asian professionals through their own region focused on regional issues of MPP concern.
A data bank, accessible to post, of potential speakers for quick reaction interviews with local press by theme, language ability and comments from previous programs.
Power Point presentations on issues.
Survey Results for Worldwide Products and Programs
Usefulness Ratings of Worldwide Products and Programs
In Order From Highest to Lowest
Products/Programs Most Often Mentioned
As One of Five Most Useful
Products/Programs Most Often Mentioned
As One of Five Least Useful
Usefulness Ratings of Regional and Single-Country Programs Of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
[This portion is available as an Adobe PDF file
1. U.S. Speakers and Specialists: Expert U.S. professionals (both private sector and USG) travel abroad to address issues of U.S. policy, society and values with key foreign audiences in formats ranging from short-term speaking engagements through longer-term consultancies.
2. Digital Video Conferences: Expert U.S. professionals (both private sector and USG) conduct speaker programs through electronic video conferencing with interlocutors at one or a number of U.S. missions
3. Tele Conferences: Expert U.S. professionals (both private sector and USG) conduct speaker programs through telephone conferencing with interlocutors at one or a number of U.S. missions.
4. Web Sites: Development, design and maintenance of special web sites in support of current and longer-term U.S. regional and thematic foreign policy priorities.
5. Washington File - Overall: A daily compilation of key policy-related texts, transcripts and background materials which is transmitted to U.S. Missions for their use and to inform foreign audiences about the U.S. and its policies.
6. Washington File - Official USG texts and transcripts.
7. Washington File - Op-eds bylined articles by USG officials.
8. Washington File - Staff-written policy analysis and backgrounders.
9. Washington File - Staff written articles for press placement.
10. Washington File - Chronologies and fact sheets.
11. Washington File - U.S. press items for internal use.
12. Washington File - Foreign Language (French, Spanish, Arabic, and Russian)
13. Listservs: In consultation with field posts, email groups are set up to receive targeted messages on specific U.S. policies or issues.
14. Electronic Journals - English: Regularly published journals including contributions by senior U.S. officials and private sector experts (and related bibliographic and Internet resources) on critical U.S. policies and trends, and on U.S. society and values. Can be downloaded in formatted versions for dissemination as paper products.
15. Electronic Journals - Foreign Language (Russian, Spanish, French, Arabic and Portuguese versions of Electronic Journals).
16. Print Publications - English: Pamphlets and short books commissioned specifically for foreign audiences on topics of ongoing interest, e.g., American government, economics, literature, trade, elections and on topics of immediate relevance to current U.S. foreign policy, including special publications during foreign policy crises.
17. Print Publications - Foreign Language: French, Spanish, Arabic, Russian, and other. See above for description of content.
18. Information USA (CD-ROM and Web Site): An IIP-produced CD ROM and web site that are comprehensive, authoritative resources for foreign audiences seeking information about U.S. policies, society, and political processes.
19. Technology Partnerships: This is a program to facilitate partnerships between U.S. private sector volunteers and foreign institutions needing specialized advice on technology projects.
20. Information Resource Center Support: IIP provides policy direction, administrative and technical support to 160 Information Resource Centers (IRCs) located at U.S. Missions abroad, and print and electronic information resources for the use of Public Diplomacy personnel in Washington and overseas. Information Resource Officers (IROs), a corps of 25 Foreign Service specialists, provide professional guidance, technical development and training for IRCs and their staffs.
21. Reference Services from Washington - Support for advanced requests from U.S. missions for information on highly specialized topics.
22. Bibliographic Services from Washington - Extensive and timely summaries of current advanced U.S. reports and studies, periodical literature and books on the range of policy and related topics that missions address with foreign interlocutors abroad. (Advance Document Service, Article Alert, Books and Documents List.)
23. Support for Post Home Pages/Internet Activities: Technical and editorial guidance and support for U.S. mission websites and other Internet activities.
24. Copyright Clearances: Assistance to U.S. missions in obtaining copyright clearance for print and electronic products needed to accomplish mission program plans.
25. Book Publication and Translation Support: Assistance to posts in translating and publishing and/or distributing in host-country languages books by American authors, in support of long-term U.S. foreign policy objectives. The American Publications in Translation Program encourages translation, reprinting or distribution of titles already in translation of key works in U.S. politics, economics, law, history and literature for foreign audiences, while fostering respect for intellectual property rights and the growth of publishing industries as vital components of civil societies in developing countries.
26. Online Databases: Public Diplomacy Query (PDQ) Database; Lexis-Nexis; Dow Jones Interactive; Galenet; Leadership Directories; Federal News Service; StatUSA.
27. Photo and Graphic Images: Photo research, digital imagery and graphic services in support of specialized mission needs for country-specific projects.
Programs of the Bureau of Public Affairs (PA)
Multi-Regional Products and Programs of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA)
Regional ECA Programs
90. Freedom Support Act Graduate Program: This program confers fellowships for Masters degree-level study in the U.S. in the fields of business administration, economics, education administration, environmental management, journalism/mass communication, law and law pedagogy, library and information science, public administration, public health and public policy for students and professionals from the NIS.
91. Junior Faculty Development Program: This program grants fellowships in the United States for university faculty in the early stages of their careers from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine for one academic year to develop curricula, acquire new teaching skills and to upgrade their knowledge in a variety of fields.
92. Fellowships in Contemporary Issues: Government officials, NGO leaders, and other professionals from the NIS who are engaged in the political, economic, social and educational transformation of their countries receive fellowships at U.S. universities, think tanks, NGOs or U.S. Government offices to conduct research on topics that help to advance the transition to democracy, free markets and the building of a civil society in their countries.
93. Internet Access and Training Program: This program promotes greater communication with and follow-on activities for USG program alumni through the establishment of Internet and training sites at universities, libraries, information resource centers and NGOs in Russia and the NIS.
94. Russia-U.S. Young Leaders for Public Service Program: This academic exchange program provides one year of intensive academic and professional training to young American and Russian leaders. Russian students select a concentration in Community Affairs, Governmental Affairs or Corporate Affairs. American students focus on Russian studies.
95. Partners in Education: Supports democratic and educational reform in selected NIS countries by exposing teachers, school managers, ministry of education officials, and faculty of education members to U.S. educational principles and to learn about approaches to citizenship education, curriculum development, school governance, and local control of education.
96. Civic Education: Supports cooperative pursuit of locally oriented curriculum development and teacher training in the field of civic education.
97. College and University Linkages and Specialized Programs: Supports cooperative pursuit of institutional objectives in higher education through exchanges of faculty and administrators among institutional partners as reinforced by purchases of books, equipment, and other material.
98. Educational Advising Services: Educational Advising/Information Centers abroad assist foreign students, scholars, parents, and officials seeking information about educational opportunities in the U.S. Centers, supported by Bureau programs, promote U.S. study opportunities by offering professional, unbiased help with the application process, testing, financial aid, and re-entry to the home country.
99. FSA Grants: Through this initiative, American embassies choose high-ranking individuals from government and the private sector to come to the U.S. on intensive one to three-week programs that target issues, such as federalism, rule of law, economic development, media, politics and elections, and NGOs.
100. Community Connections: Business internships and professional programming for approximately 1,900 participants from Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, Georgia, Armenia and Kazakhstan in 50 American host communities. English speaking business entrepreneurs spend five weeks in American host businesses; non-English speaking professionals participate in 3-4 week group programs in fields such as economic development, NGO development, and educational administration and legal reform. All participants live with American host families.
101. Professional Training: Grants to American not-for profit institutions awarded on a competitive basis for exchanges and training projects that respond to NIS priority issues such as women's leadership, business association development, distance learning, and the prevention of trafficking of women and children.
102. Center for Citizen Initiatives: One-month, US-based, practical business training for 750 non-English speaking Russian businesspeople. Local Rotary and Kiwanis clubs organize programming and homestays with American families.
103. Russian Media Internships: Sixteen Russian print media managers will have 10-week internships with American news organizations.
104. FLEX (co-funded with base funds): High school students from the 12 New Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union are selected in national, merit-based, open competitions for full scholarships to live for one academic year in the US with a host family and attend high school.
105. Secondary School Partnerships: Grants are awarded to support linkages between American schools and their partners in the NIS for the purpose of conducting thematic projects and exchanges involving students, teachers and administrators.
106. Teaching Excellence Award (TEA): Outstanding teachers of English and American studies in selected NIS countries compete for awards of educational materials and equipment for their schools; national winners attend a seven-week program in the U.S. designed to enhance their knowledge of the United States and teaching methodologies.
107. Alumni Programs: Projects coordinated by post or by Washington which provide separate funding for alumni of ECA programs to further develop their knowledge, skills, and networking.
ECA Programs Funded by SEED Funds (East European Missions Only)
108. Ron Brown Fellowship Program (formerly the Central and Eastern European Graduate Fellowship Program): This program provides fellowships for graduate study at the Master's degree-level in the U.S. in the fields of business administration, communications/journalism, economics, education administration, environmental management, law, public administration and public policy for students and professionals under the age of 40 from Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and Slovenia.
109. Bosnia Undergraduate Development Program: This program grants scholarships for one academic year of undergraduate study in the U.S. to students from Bosnia and Herzegovina in a variety of fields.
110. Bosnia-Herzegovina Youth Leadership Development Program: The grant supports a Youth Leadership Program for Bosnia and Herzegovina to provide young leaders from those areas with instruction and firsthand experience in civic participation and community leadership.
111. Bosnia-Herzegovina Business and Local Governance Training Program: Four-week internships for business people, local government officials and business academics in three cities in Ohio.
112. Bosnian Diplomatic Training Program: Three-week practical training in Washington, DC and New York for 64 Ambassadors-designate, senior, mid and junior level officials of the Bosnian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
113. Media Internships and Internet Training (for Balkan journalists): Practical training for 19 print and electronic journalists and media managers from Bosnia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Kosovo, and Montenegro.
114. Professional Training: Grants to American not-for profit institutions awarded on a competitive basis for exchanges and training projects that respond to priority issues of women's leadership and fundraising development in Central and Eastern Europe.
a. Is this product or program either used by your Mission or received by audiences in your country?
1. Yes -- Go to Question c
2. No -- Go to Question b
b. IF THE PRODUCT OR PROGRAM IS NOT USED: Why do you not use this product or program? Indicate the single most important reason.
1. We are not familiar with it.
2. It is not applicable to this Mission (e.g., Partners of America to posts outside Latin America)
3. The quality is inconsistent.
4. It is not timely.
5. It is too low a priority for the resources available.
6. It is too labor intensive.
7. It is not appropriate given the level of technology of the society here.
8. It is not available in the local language.
9. It is not well-targeted/responsive to Mission goals and objectives.
c. IF THE PRODUCT OR PROGRAM IS USED: Using the following five-point scale, please rate the usefulness of this product or program in achieving Mission goals and objectives.
5. Extremely useful
4. Very useful
3. Fairly useful
2. Not very useful
1. Not at all useful
d. (For those answering 4 or 5 to c) Why do you consider this product or program extremely or very useful? ( You may indicate up to 3 reasons.)
1. It is well-targeted/responsive to Mission goals and objectives.
2. It helps us meet key people in the local society.
3. The local language version makes it accessible.
4. The content is useful in reaching local audiences.
5. It is very timely/time-sensitive.
6. It is useful in building long-term relationships and mutual understanding
7. It is useful within the Mission.
8. It is of consistently high quality.
9. Other (Explain briefly)
e. (For those answering 1, 2 or 3 to c) Why do you consider this product or program only fairly useful, not very useful, or not at all useful? (You may indicate up to 3 reasons.)
1. It is not timely.
2. The quality is inconsistent.
3. It is too labor intensive.
4. It is not well-targeted/responsive to Mission goals and objectives.
5. It is not available in a local language version.
6. It is too costly.
7. It is not useful in reaching audiences.
8. It is not appropriate given the level of technology of the local society.
9. Other (Explain briefly)
f. In addition to the rating done above, please include any comment you may wish to make about this product or program.
Priority Listing of Ten Most Useful Products/Programs
Considering all the products and programs used at your Mission and rated in the survey, please list in priority order the ten products or programs you believe are most useful for meeting Mission goals and objectives. Begin with the most useful, the second most useful, etc.
Priority Listing of Ten Least Useful Products/Programs
Considering all the products and programs used at your Mission and rated in the survey, please list the ten products or programs you believe least useful for meeting Mission goals and objectives. Begin with the least useful, the second least useful, etc.
What products or programs or new initiatives would you like to have that you don't have available to you now?
Comments on Overall Role of Public Diplomacy
We invite you to make any comments here on the overall role of public diplomacy at your Mission.
EXCERPTS FROM COMMENTS BY AMBASSADORS*
* These comments were edited for presentation purposes. Full transcripts are available on request.
...I do not believe the Department yet possesses the reflexes and institutional skills it needs to fulfill this core mission. The State-USIS marriage gives us the chance to change that.
...There may be little we can do about harmonizing our domestic and international messages. We should not, however, labor under the illusion that things said at home matter less than messages meant for foreign audiences. The former are always more authoritative in countries, like Australia, with democratic traditions similar to ours.
...Yet we cannot achieve our core public diplomacy functions if Embassies continue to act purely as distributors of messages produced in Washington. It is this "mail handler" mentality in Embassies, which afflicts not just ex-USIS operations but also many political and economic sections, that we must get beyond. Washington simply cannot craft the kinds of country-specific messages we need to win converts and combat negative news. Time constraints alone prevent this from happening. It should be the job of Embassies, drawing on all the electronic resources we now have available, to draft the press releases, the talking points, the if-asked guidance, the op-ed pieces, letters to the editor, and the speeches we need to get our message across. More than simply react, posts need to look ahead to media opportunities and pitfalls and prepare for them....
Related to this is the need for faster and better quality clearances for Embassy-produced public diplomacy materials. This post, like many others, has had policy speeches turned into pabulum by the clearance process in Washington, and then returned to post too late for any chance of effective redrafting. The same risks apply to any media product we submit to the clearance process. (I don't want to suggest this is the norm. We often get excellent service.) The problem may be that we don't have established structures or procedures in place to handle clearances. This may be an area where our public diplomacy experts can modify our institutional machinery. A streamlined and well-understood clearance process in Washington for post-generated media materials would greatly boost our effectiveness in dealing with foreign media.Belarus
...Mission does not have other tools that are normally available to USG to promote US foreign policy objectives, such as American investors, business community, American NGOs and charitable organizations, - none of this is happening inside Belarus. Therefore linkages that we want to build between Belarusians and Americans for the purpose of supporting Belarusians' creating a democratic environment and improving human rights, have to be created through public diplomacy programs.Bolivia
Public diplomacy plays a key role in virtually all Mission Program Plan policy goals and objectives. The Public Affairs Section is clearly identified by the Ambassador, and understood by the entire mission, to be the coordinator for all USG public statements and activities that shape our messages and image. PD products and programs must continue to respond to both short-term information needs and long term efforts to build bilateral institutional and individual linkages. We trust this survey will help identify and improve the most useful PD tools and resources.Brazil
In the ranking of best products, we were hampered by the narrow choices presented. In fact, we like ALL the Fulbright programs, ALL the IV (and we include VV in this category) programs, and the variety of IRC programs we ranked highly in the questionnaire.Burkina Faso
Public diplomacy is an absolutely necessary part of post mission. Don't let funding erode - and move funding from the least useful programs to the most useful.Burma
Public Diplomacy is critical to this Mission. It not only provides a public face to the embassy, but takes American presence into communities, such as the universities, where we are otherwise prohibited access. Public Diplomacy directly supports MPP goals and the struggle for democracy and human rights in this country....Canada
Public diplomacy plays an important role in informing Canadian publics of USG policies and actions in almost every aspect of the bilateral relationship.... Unfortunately, the amount of resources dedicated to this invaluable tool are finite, and we are limited in the amount of outreach that can be accomplished. Fortunately, we have been able to make use of new technologies (the internet, listservs) to reach as broad an audience as possible.Chile
Public diplomacy is a key element of this mission's strategy to promote mission and regional goals.... Targeted and sustained outreach is critical to effective diplomatic representation abroad. Public Diplomacy provides the tools, the platform and the expertise for this mission to articulate U.S. policy and values and to build long-term institutional relationships.Czech Republic
Public Diplomacy is an integral part of all Mission goals. As such, products and services listed in the survey are of use to us at different times in varying proportions. Rating the most and least useful products in this context becomes a less meaningful exercise, especially as we rate large programs against occasional and much smaller programs. For example, we listed cultural heritage as less useful because we use it rarely and because this function is carried out by other State offices, not because we believe it serves no purpose.Egypt
It is impossible to achieve US policy goals without public affairs and public diplomacy programs. Even in the least democratic regimes, public opinion plays a role in supporting or weakening governments and by extension, U.S. interests. The programming aspect is key to that success. We cannot simply provide products or technical connectivity. Without people-to-people contact and institutional linkages our ability to influence and understand foreign publics will be superficial.El Salvador
The Office of Public Affairs in San Salvador is fully engaged both in planning and supporting the MPP activities of the entire Mission. They successfully tailor a variety of products to the audience and the goal. We find that the programs with the most impact are those that put people in direct touch with their counterparts, such as the IV, speaker and Fulbright programs, and those that disseminate timely, accurate information about USG policies.Ethiopia
Public Diplomacy plays a critical role at this post. We are dealing with the 3rd most populous country in Africa located in a region critical to the stability of the continent;... Anytime there is a US initiative, policy or comment on any of the foregoing, our PD section ensures that the Ethiopian target audiences are immediately provided that information. I rely on the PAO for advice as to what will and will not fly in the Ethiopian media and count on her strong support for my activities in bringing to the attention of the Ethiopian media, government and general public the US role in promoting regional stability, supporting relief work in various economic and humanitarian crises, and encouraging the effective development of genuinely democratic institutions.Fiji
...We feel that our inability to participate in these programs needs focused review. For example, several Group IVs have been scrubbed due to lack of response. We would love to be able to nominate candidates for Group IV and VolVis programs. A Humphrey fellowship or two for each of the four countries covered by Embassy Suva would be welcomed, as would the renewal of a Fulbright Program. We have exactly one Individual IV for FY 2000 for the four countries combined (although we understand another one or two might be under consideration). Since our four countries all are largely English-speaking, the need for PD information products has been reduced by widespread internet access.Finland
Public Diplomacy programs and targeted information distribution play an integral role in achieving US bilateral and regional policy objectives for this mission. As Chief of Mission, I set a high priority on people-to-people exchanges, especially IV and VV programs, NATO tours, citizen exchange programs such as ACYPL, and the visits of US speakers and specialists . For fifty years FULBRIGHT programs have provided the fundamental building block for increased mutual understanding between the U.S. and Finland.Germany
Just as the broad support of the American public is necessary to the successful implementation of an American foreign policy, so then is the support of foreign publics in those states from which we desire acceptance or backing of that policy. In Germany, all of our policy initiatives have a public diplomacy element, and public diplomacy support is included throughout our Mission Program Plan and the Mission's "Rolling Agenda."
...In like manner, the remaining America Houses and German-American Institutes are not only genuine centers of dialogue with important opinion-makers but also symbols of German-American friendship and partnership. Closures of America Houses in the recent past have hampered our ability to reach German publics. The Mission has included prevention of further closures as an element of the MPP.
We believe that more cultural programming should be offered to us from Washington sources and recommend that efforts be made to recruit well-known American performers and entertainers to serve as cultural ambassadors to Germany and elsewhere....Ghana
From my perspective as Ambassador, PD tools are indispensable elements in Mission efforts to advance US policy and programming priorities in Ghana....
...First, through PD activities, Mission staff, including myself, are able to 1) inform ourselves, host government officials, and opinion shapers about issues and values which the USG seeks to promote in Ghana. Thanks to new technologies, we are able to do this very quickly, which can prove critical in gaining support for US positions on fast-evolving issues. I also rely extensively on the PD section for materials used in my own speeches in support of USG interests....
A second point I'd like to make is that PD tools enable the Mission proactively to: 1) focus attention on issues we think merit more attention; 2) help shape the debate that takes place among Ghanaians; and 3) publicize concrete examples of heightened USG engagement with and assistance to African nations, which in turn makes it easier to sell our views.Greece
Suggest that we pare our products and services: We are being pulled in so many directions that our efforts and the impact of our products/services is diffused.Guinea
Public diplomacy plays a central role in allowing the mission to reach out to the Guinean public. Public diplomacy activities such as the U.S. speaker and IV programs permit us to meet and interact with key audience members. The timeliness and relevance of the Wireless File makes it an integral part of our daily lives. Cultural programs should be revitalized as they offer excellent opportunities to showcase the vitality of our own culture and often to reach audience members who may be otherwise difficult to contact.Honduras
As democracy becomes ever more deeply entrenched in Honduras, Honduran civil society will play an increasingly important role in determining the country's domestic and foreign policies. As a result, I can no longer count on traditional diplomacy alone to achieve my Mission goals and objectives....
The PAS serves both long- and short-term interests, and both external and internal "customers." The press section uses interviews with the media, our Embassy web page, and speeches targeted at specific audiences on Mission Performance Plan themes to address current U.S. foreign policy goals. Cultural programs and presentations advance our interests by providing a more balanced, well-rounded view of American society, demonstrating that the U.S. is more than just a soulless political, economic and military superpower....Indonesia
Public Diplomacy is a vital adjunct to the practice of traditional diplomacy everywhere and is an essential element in Embassy Jakarta's efforts to advance U.S. national interests in Indonesia. Public Affairs considerations are factored into MPP preparation and, as appropriate, in the Mission's diverse efforts to achieve goals set out in that document. Post-consolidation, our Public Affairs staff has adjusted well to the new organizational framework and is contributing to attainment of our foreign policy objectives in this country.Japan
Japanese DRS members and institutions are exquisitely sensitive to actions by and news about the U.S., and we need to maintain constant contact to avoid their developing a picture of the U.S. that underplays our strengths and exaggerates our weaknesses. This is a high maintenance relationship....
The most distinctive public diplomacy event remains the occasion when a private American citizen, even one with extensive governmental experience at a senior level, expresses his or her personal views on a bilateral issue, touches a responsive chord among his/her interlocutors. S/he then enlarges the credibility of both the U.S. government and the body of American outside policymakers, think tank analysts, private-sector specialists and cultural critics who transport ideas and ties across the Pacific. And, irrigated by mutual understanding, the relationship continues to flourish....
As the Japanese public becomes increasingly assertive and questioning of its leadership, our active public diplomacy will become even more crucial to sustaining this level of support. Public diplomacy in Japan is a long-term investment, and is money well-spent to ensure our national goals in East Asia and throughout the world.Korea
The conduct of public diplomacy is a core activity of Embassy Seoul, complementing government-to-government diplomacy. Our public diplomacy priorities are defined by the political, security, economic and trade objectives of our Mission Program Plan. As democracy has taken hold in Korea, direct public advocacy of U.S. policies and views has become increasingly important. At the same time, the long-term goal of increasing mutual understanding, without which the policy dialog finally cannot succeed, remains valid. ...We need not only a good message but also effective programs to deliver that message credibly and with impact. We also face growing competition for the attention of opinion leaders and future opinion leaders whose good will and understanding are built through long-term relationships with the Embassy and the United States. We need programs which attract these important people and make it worthwhile for them to engage with us....Lithuania
The practice of public diplomacy is fully and centrally integrated into this embassy's Mission Program Plan. ...Exchange programs that have allowed Lithuanians to visit the U.S. and make substantive contact with professional colleagues have played, and will continue to play, an important role in cementing a strong bilateral relationship. Information programs that keep the general public as well as public officials abreast of U.S. policy, opinion, and events help build understanding, break down stereotypes, and play a key role in filling the information void caused by 50 years of Soviet occupation. The constant, varied "conversation" that we have with Lithuanians, using the tools of public diplomacy, is an invaluable aid in furthering our goal of helping Lithuania develop into a prosperous, independent, and democratic member of the world community.Mexico
Public diplomacy is limited in Mexico in achieving results of either short-term policy influence or long-term mutual understanding.... Where there is more receptivity to PD programs is in the cultural and higher education side, but given the breadth of contact already taking place between our two societies at this level, PD resources are too small to have a major impact. That said, PD programming remains essential given the level of misunderstanding in the public arena of our intentions and policies....Mozambique
Vital and well integrated into entire Mission.
Suggest PA officers receive more training on (1) interview and public speaking techniques, similar to what is offered to Ambassadors and (2) the techniques for reaching beyond established programs for DOS-sponsored academic exchange programs to stimulate many more university collaborations funded by other USG agencies, foundations, the universities themselves.Philippines
The Public Affairs Section in Embassy Manila is well situated to support the MPP and the "new" State's emphasis on the importance of public diplomacy. Hopefully, the huge, painful budget and staff cuts which adversely affected public affairs in Manila over recent years and prompted the closure of our three public libraries (initially in Davao and Cebu and then a year and a half ago in Manila) are things of the past....
The Mission uses Worldnet not only for interactives but also for TV placement. For example, Skycable -- the Philippines' major cable TV network -- dedicates its Channel 52 in Manila to daily, 24-hour Worldnet service. This means that Worldnet, including its C-SPAN programs, reaches a wider audience than invitational interactives conducted on the embassy grounds. As Ambassador, I find myself enjoying "the Lehrer News Hour," which Skycable carries on its Worldnet channel.
Although VOA is now under an independent IBB, the Public Affairs Section tries to keep in touch with VOA marketing officers, who help support some 20 "VOA affiliates," local radio stations around the Philippines which receive VOA programming via satellite. Continued cooperation with IBB is essential, and State should make clear to IBB that the Mission needs to be "kept in the loop" on IBB marketing and other activities.Poland
The overall role of public diplomacy at this mission is still being worked out in the post-consolidation period. There is a considerable educational process taking place between the Public Affairs Section and other sections of the Mission, and understanding and patience are in great demand....Russia
Speakers are a vitally important tool for systematically addressing MPP goals in partnership with Mission officers. We have found the process of recruiting experts occasionally not as effective as we would like;...Senegal
Public diplomacy is a critical component of this embassy. The mission of public diplomacy reminds me of the old adage, if a tree falls in the forest and no one is there to hear it, does it make a sound? We can have the best of intentions and can be doing great work in preserving peace and promoting democracy and prosperity around the world, but if foreign publics are not aware of it, if they do not hear the tree falling, as far as they are concerned nothing has happened....South Africa
I cite this list [of programs] because it illustrates the variety of public diplomacy Activities that I have witnessed in my short tenure as Ambassador. The list is by no means comprehensive, but it does demonstrate the importance of both Washington support for mission public diplomacy efforts and the effective public diplomacy activities that can be generated without Washington support. Key to these successful programs are the energetic, engaged public diplomacy officers and FSN's who serve me and my entire country team. As the new Ambassador, public diplomacy has been a pleasant surprise which will clearly be essential in accomplishing the goals of my mission.Spain
Public Diplomacy is an essential part of Mission planning and activities. We are very pleased with the level of public diplomacy support we receive from IIP at this Mission.
Given Ambassadorial and Mission interests and contacts, we would appreciate IIP support in the more "traditional" cultural affairs areas. This will make it possible for PA to be pro-active in defining appropriate and useful cultural activities instead of being reactive to over-the transom requests.Sri Lanka
It is very good that PD undertakes a quick and hard review of available programs, and the list presented was frankly astonishing in its length and variety. At this small mission, while we are aware of many of the PD programs listed, too often this awareness was more a part of institutional memory than recent practice. As USIS staff were reduced over the last ten years, so too were the number and variety of programs used -- in the end, for many still-useful programs, there were insufficient staff skills and experience to manage them well. Budgets had also dwindled. Given that polling remains an inexact science, I would urge "R" to continue to assess PD programs for another year or so (in a variety of ways) and to pare programs as sparingly as resources allow. 80% of this Mission turns over with this summer cycle, and it is hard to say with certainty how the next Ambassador, PAO and other American officers will want to approach public diplomacy goals.Sweden
Public Diplomacy in Stockholm has adapted quickly and effectively to the internet in IT-savvy Sweden, and as a result, our popular Mission Home Page, with over 1 million hits some months, has become the prime source of interacting with, and providing info to, general publics, as well as serving as an important source of more detailed and timely content for our targeted opinion-makers. Together with the tried-and-true traditional programs, such as TV and Fulbright, as well as the speakers programs and Washington File, Public Diplomacy in Stockholm reflects the wide variety of options we use to get our message out to our targeted publics on a wide variety of USG priority issues and concerns.Syria
Given the general trend of diminished budgets, we encourage efforts to develop fund-raising strategies that overseas missions can employ effectively to further MPP goals. Department regulations governing fund-raising should be reviewed with an eye towards making them as user-friendly as possible. Training in fundraising techniques should be made available for FSOs and offered widely so that this skill becomes as familiar to public diplomacy practitioners as foreign languages.Taiwan
...The way to reach our audiences is on-line. Paper-based products no longer meet the demands of this audience for the timeliest, most comprehensive information.Tanzania
The public diplomacy office is a key player in this effort and the most critical services they provide are 1) expert advice and assistance in getting our message to the press and the public and 2) technical expertise in helping the Embassy format and present information. It is not just a matter of getting the message out --in the information age, when there is so much available from so many sources, how the message is packaged is critical in getting it to the right audience. The expertise our public diplomacy professionals have to offer in this area is Immeasurable....
Post management finds Washington File--official statements extremely useful, as we are frequently asked to provide copies of speeches or statements made by USG officials. We are always on the watch for statements that might be of interest to our contacts at the Foreign Ministry, the Presidency, etc. and we volunteer them regularly. I have been amazed at how much an official... will appreciate receiving a copy of a speech that he might otherwise have spent all day trying to locate.Thailand
Public Diplomacy (PD) encompasses much of what I individually and the mission as a whole do to represent the U.S. in Thailand. It underpins the building and maintenance of a strong bilateral relationship as it allows us to work toward our objectives in a range of fields (regional security, economic, democracy, global issues related to narcotics suppression, international crime, environment and health). I find many public diplomacy products are essential to convey U.S. position and policies effectively to Thai counterparts in government and in NGOs, and to the media and public as a whole.... In essence public diplomacy is not viewed as a separate function to be handled by one section but as an activity which should involve all officers of the Embassy. We look for more ways to use the PD tools provided by Washington and generated here at the Embassy to bring the resources of the various agencies to bear in supporting Mission goals and objectives.Tunisia
Public diplomacy continues to play a key role in this mission's approach to U.S. foreign policy advocacy and is fully integrated into the MPP process and Country Team activities. ...we have relied on cultural programs and professional and academic exchanges, along with the American Cultural Center and its popular library, to carry a good deal of the public diplomacy load. As Tunisia's democratic institutions take root and strengthen, we would expect the information sector to liberalize and to expand. At that time the traditional PD tools directed toward the media will take on greater importance than heretofore and the entire PD effort will thus be more balanced. Moreover, we are seeing an increased emphasis on the English language within the educational system in Tunisia, which eventually will play out into both government and the private sector....
...Finally, we have been fairly successful, on a very limited budget, participating in a few of the many cultural festivals and events that Tunisia organizes every year. But music, dance, film and theater are expensive and therefore somewhat neglected elements of the PD mix of support programs for posts. We could and should be doing more of this kind of programming, which conveys to audiences here so much of the best of our society, using a light touch, accessible to many, and cultivates the young and the open-minded among our interlocutors.Turkmenistan
Place a premium on speakers who are dynamic. The last thing we need is overeducated specialists reading their research papers out loud.
Bring back cultural exchanges.Uruguay
There is nothing wrong with the array of products and programs available for public diplomacy. In general they are well suited for reaching our objectives. I have attempted to do more attitudinal polling than was done in the past, because I believe it is the test of the success of many of our programs. Without asking the public what they think of us, it is difficult to know if we are succeeding. I have found that INL, as the new repository for polling capability has been very supportive.
There is a problem with the objectives at which these programs are aimed. In Uruguay, and probably in the Southern Cone of Latin America, public diplomacy objectives of the 90's have largely been reached, and it is time to move on. The goals of promoting democracy, civil society, civil control of the military, human rights, and English language teaching have been embraced by these societies.
We need to redirect our efforts to a new set of imperatives. The acceptance of entrepreneurship as a social objective, not only freedom of the press but professionalisation of the press, Internet access and training are among the objectives we need to consider going forward. Latin America is not a homogenous region. Some of the earlier objectives may still apply in some parts. But in the Southern Cone, we need to redefine our strategy.
[end of document]
Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs
Department of State